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Liolaemus parthenos ABDALA, BALDO, JUÁREZ & ESPINOZA, 2016

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
SynonymLiolaemus parthenos ABDALA, BALDO, JUÁREZ & ESPINOZA 2016
Liolaemus boulengeri CEI 1973: 464, in part
Liolaemus boulengeri — CEI & ROIG 1976: 71ff, in part
Liolaemus boulengeri — CEI & CASTRO 1978: 9, 21, Map 16, in part
Liolaemus boulengeri — CEI 1986: 220–221, in part
Liolaemus boulengeri — SCHULTE et al. 2000: 79, 87; table 1; figs. 4–6
Liolaemus sp. nov. MORANDO et al. 2004: 845; table 1–3; figs. 2, 8
Liolaemus sp. ABDALA & DIAZ GÓMEZ 2006: 29; fig. 3
Liolaemus sp. 3. ABDALA 2007: 51ff; figs. 32–36
Liolaemus cf. darwinii — PINCHEIRA-DONOSO et al. 2007: 32; fig. 3
Liolaemus cf. darwinii — SCHULTE 2013: 5; fig. 1
Liolaemus sp. 3 OLAVE et al. 2014: 329, 331; figs. 4, 6 
DistributionArgentina (Mendoza), 1305– 1600 m elevation

Type locality: Argentina, Mendoza Province, San Rafael Department, collected on the dunes next to El Nihuil Dam on Provincial Route 180, 35°2’19.77’’ S, 68°40’12.60’’ W, 1305 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. Reproductively active females (well-developed eggs in oviducts) were observed in January (n 1⁄4 5), and non-reproductive females were found in December and February (n 1⁄4 13). However, in a different year, Abdala et al. 2016 found females with oviducts full of developing eggs in December (n 1⁄4 11). These observations suggest that the reproductive period begins in November and lasts until late January.<br /><br />Parthenogenesis: Abdala et al. 2016 examined more than 300 specimens (of which 65 specimens were collected and preserved), but no males were encountered. L. grosseorum or L. laurenti are the suspected maternal ancestros and L. darwinii and L. laurenti may be the maternal ancestors, but this needs to be confirmed. 
TypesHolotype: FML 16221, adult female, C. Abdala, J. Abdala, and E. Malovini, January 2001 (Fig. 1).
Paratypes.—FML 16222–24, same data as holotype; IBAUNC 9772–73, 9775–77, Argentina, Mendoza Province, San Rafael, Department, 10 to 60 km S of El Nihuil, 35°7’0.71’’S, 68°41’4.28’’W to 35°33’49.47’’S, 68°41’15.14’’W, 1400–1600 m, 25 November 1973; IBAUNC 11431–35, Argentina, Mendoza Province, San Rafael Department, Pampa del Diamante, 34°54’44.39’’S, 68°51’38.58’’W, 1400 m, 17 February 1975; MHNSR 78–82, Argentina, Mendoza Province, San Rafael Department, Club de Pescadores, El Nihuil, 35°2’10.54’’S, 68°42’33.84’’W, 1325 m, 1 January 1975. 
CommentSynonymy after ABDALA et al. 2016.

Similar species: L. darwinii with which it nests in some phylogenetic analyses (Abdala et al. 2016: 491) and L. laurenti.

Sympatry: Aurivela longicauda (Teiidae), Diplolaemus sexcinctus, Leiosaurus bellii (Leiosauridae), Liolaemus gracilis, L. grosseorum. Oxyrhopus rhombifer, Philodryas trilineata, Xenodon semicinctus, Bothrops ammodytoides.

Karyotype: triploid with 3n 1⁄4 49 chromosomes (19 macrochromosomes + 30 microchromosomes) (Abdala et al. 2016). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet parthenos is a Greek noun meaning ‘‘virgin’’ or ‘‘maiden,’’ in reference to the presumed reproductive strategy of this all-female species. 
  • Abdala, Cristián S.; Diego Baldo, Ricardo A. Juárez and Robert E. Espinoza 2016. The First Parthenogenetic Pleurodont Iguanian: A New All-female Liolaemus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Western Argentina Copeia 104 (2): 487–497 - get paper here
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