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Liotyphlops caissara CENTENO, SAWAYA & GERMANO, 2010

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Higher TaxaAnomalepididae, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymLiotyphlops caissara CENTENO, SAWAYA & GERMANO 2010
Liotyphlops caissara — WALLACH et al. 2014: 397
Liotyphlops caissara — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (São Paulo: Anchieta Island, Ilha de São Sebastião)

Type locality: Trilha da Água Branca in Ilha de São Sebastião (23° 50’ 45’’ S, 45° 21’ 12’’ W; Fig. 1), municipality of Ilhabela, São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, 300 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: lost, was IBSP 76774 (Fig. 3), juvenile female, collected on 17 January 2007 by FCC and Kelly R. Zamudio (lost fide Abegg et al. 2019). The only other specimen is IBSP 89927 (young male). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Liotyphlops caissara is readily distinguished from all other species of the genus by its pale cream ventral color pattern (Fig. 3 ) and the three supralabial scales (Table 1). Additional differences among L. caissara and other members of the genus are summarized in Table 1. In other species of Liotyphlops, such as L. beui, when the light color is present on the venter, it is observed only at the anterior and posterior ends of the body, not in the middle of the body. Liotyphlops caissara shows a different arrangement in certain head scales, and different numbers of body scales. Liotyphlops caissara is distinguished from L. anops, L. argaleus, and L. trefauti by having three scales contacting the posterior edge of prefrontal (four in other species; Table 1). Liotyphlops caissara differs from L. beui, L. schubarti, and L. ternetzii by having one scale in contact with the posterior edge of nasal between second supralabial and prefrontal (two in other species; Table 1). Liotyphlops caissara may be closely related to L. albirostris and L. wilderi (see Table 1). However, L. caissara shows a different number of scale rows around the body (22/20/20 in anterior/ middle/posterior) and a smaller number of dorsal scale rows (326) when compared with L. albirostris (number of scale rows 23–26/20– 22/20–23; dorsal scale rows 370–520), and one less supralabial scale (3–3) than L. wilderi (4– 4). Additionally, the eye spot in L. caissara is poorly visible, whereas it is not visible in L. wilderi. 
CommentOnly known from two specimens, the holotype (which is now lost) and a second specimen described by Abegg et al. 2019. 
EtymologyA noun in apposition, the specific epithet ‘‘caissara’’ (from the word ‘‘caiçara’’) is used in allusion to the region in which the new species was found. Caiçara is a term from the Tupi native Brazilian ancient language, and has been strictly used to describe traditional coastal communities throughout São Paulo state. 
  • ABEGG AD, AZEVEDO WS, FRANCO FL AND DUARTE MR. 2019. Description of a second known Liotyphlops caissara specimen (Serpentes: Anomalepididae). An Acad Bras Cienc 91: e20181104 - get paper here
  • Centeno, Fernanda C., Ricardo J. Sawaya and Valdir J. Germano. 2010. A new species of Liotyphlops (Serpentes: Anomalepididae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest in southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 66 (1): 86-91 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar M, Francisco L Franco, Claudia Koch, Arthur Tiutenko, Juliana M Wingert, and Márcio Borges-Martins. 2023. More than Meets No Eyes: Taxonomic Status of a Liotyphlops Peters, 1881 (Serpentes: Anomalepididae) Blindsnake from the Atlantic Rainforest. Zoologischer Anzeiger 303: 10–25 - get paper here
  • Marra-Santos, Fidélis Júnio and Roberto E. Reis 2018. Two New Blind Snake Species of the Genus Liotyphlops (Serpentes: Anomalepididae), from Central and South Brazil. Copeia 106 (3): 507-514 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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