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Loxopholis hoogmoedi (KOK, 2008)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymArthrosaura hoogmoedi KOK 2008
Loxopholis hoogmoedi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionGuyana (Mazruni District)

Type locality: summit plateau of Mount Maringma, Cuyuni-Mazruni District, Guyana (5° 12’ 60” N, 60° 35’ 06” W, 2112 m elevation).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: IRSNB 2653 (field number PK 2031), an adult female collected by Philippe J. R. Kok, Paul Benjamin and Claudius Perry, 27 November 2007 at 11h00). 
CommentDiagnosis. The new species is assigned to the genus Arthrosaura because of the following combination of characters (modified from Ávila-Pires 1995, and MacCulloch & Lathrop 2001): (1) distinctive ear opening and moveable eyelids, (2) limbs pentadactyl with all digits clawed, (3) nasal scales separated by a single frontonasal, (4) prefrontals present (although absent in Arthrosaura synaptolepis Donnelly, McDiarmid & Myers, 1992), (5) frontoparietals, parietals and interparietal present, (6) parietals and interparietal longer than wide, (7) interparietal and parietals forming a straight posterior margin, (8) occipitals present, (9) second pair of enlarged genials in contact with two infralabials, (10) enlarged median pairs of gulars, (11) dorsal scales hexagonal, keeled, in transverse rows only, (12) ventral scales quadrangular, smooth, in both transverse and longitudinal rows, (13) tongue dorsally covered by scalelike papillae (although papillae are reported as interrupting oblique plicae in Arthrosaura montigena Myers & Donnelly, 2008).
In addition to the generic characteristics, the new species is characterized by the following features: four supraoculars; prefrontals in contact with loreals; palpebral disc completely opaque; 32–33 smooth temporal scales; scales around midbody 37; 3–4 middorsal scales distinctly narrower than adjacent dorsal scales; dorsal scales strongly keeled, in 29 transverse rows; trunk length 1.4x length of forelimb; overlap of limbs equivalent to seven lateral scales when they are adpressed along the body; dark brown dorsum with a black middorsal stripe from nape to tail, and a tan ill-defined dorsolateral line from nape to midbody; flanks black; ventrally cream with dark mottling.
The new species is immediately distinguished from Arthrosaura montigena, A. reticulata (O’Shaughnessy, 1881), A. synaptolepis, A. tyleri (Burt & Burt, 1931), and A. versteegii Lidth de Jeude, 1904 in having four supraoculars (vs. three) and a black middorsal stripe from nape to tail (absent in the above-mentioned species). The new species agrees with A. guianensis MacCulloch and Lathrop, 2001, A. kockii (Lidth de Jeude, 1904), and A. testigensis Gorzula and Señaris, 1998 in having four supraoculars. Arthrosaura guianensis mainly differs (characters of A. hoogmoedi in parentheses) in having keeled parietals and interparietal (a feeble keel on interparietal only), unpigmented tympanum (pigmented), lower eyelid with semitransparent disc (disc opaque), 45 scales around midbody (37), 40–42 keeled temporals (32–33, smooth), and absence of a black middorsal stripe (present). Arthrosaura kockii mainly differs (characters of A. hoogmoedi in parentheses) in having broadly keeled temporals (smooth), unpigmented tympanum (pigmented), lower eyelid with semitransparent disc (disc opaque), a wide light vertebral stripe (black middorsal stripe), and in having an immaculate venter (dark mottled). Arthrosaura testigensis shares many characteristics with A. hoogmoedi, from which it mainly differs (characters of A. hoogmoedi in parentheses) in having less than 20 temporals (more than 30), lower eyelid with semitransparent disc (disc opaque), prefrontals separated from loreals by frontonasal-first supraocular contact (prefrontals in contact with loreals), weakly keeled dorsal scales (strongly keeled), middorsal scales not noticeably narrower than adjacent dorsal scales (3–4 middorsal scales distinctly narrower), and in having four narrow yellowish longitudinal stripes on dorsum (one middorsal black stripe and a tan ill-defined dorsolateral line). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case, honoring Dutch herpetologist Marinus Steven Hoogmoed. Marinus was curator of reptiles and amphibians at the National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, The Netherlands) for 38 years (1966–2004) before retiring as research associate at the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi in Belém, Brazil, where he is still very active. 
References
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Kok, Philippe J.R. 2008. A new highland species of Arthrosaura Boulenger, 1885 (Squamata: Symnophthalmidae) from Maringma tepui on the border of Guyana and Brazil. Zootaxa 1909: 1-15 - get paper here
 
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