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Loxopholis parietalis (COPE, 1885)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCommon Root Lizard 
SynonymMionyx parietale COPE 1885: 96
Leposoma parietale - RUIBAL 1952: 492
Leposoma parietale — PETERS et al. 1970: 165
Leposoma parietale — DUELLMAN 1978: 217
Leposoma parietale — GRAHAM 2000
Leposoma parietale — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Loxopholis parietalis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionSE Colombia, Venezuela (Tachira), E Ecuador, NE Peru

Type locality: Pebas, Peru.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: Not located (fide TORRES-CARVAJAL 2001) 
CommentDistribution: not in Brazil. Reports from Brazil are actually L. osvaldoi (Avila-Pires 1995, Costa & Bernils 2015).

Original description from COPE (1885): The characters of the genus Mionyx are the following : First toe of both anterior and posterior extremities with rudimental straight claw; claws of other digits small, straight and conic. Prefrontal and fronto-parietal plates present and distinct from each other. Ear-drum exposed. No distinct collar. Femoral pores present. Pholidosis squamous, nearly homogeneous.
Char. specif. These resemble those of the group Leposoma within that genus. The scales are imbricate and keeled, with acute posterior borders above and below. When the epidermis is lost the inferior scales are nearly truncate. The dorsal and ventral scales are subequal and form twenty-one transverse series between the anterior and posterior limbs, across the back. Behind the auricular meatus, and in the axilla, they are coarsely granular. The upper and lower arms are covered with large keeled scales, although those of the posterior side of the former are smaller than those on the anterior side. The hind leg is similarly surrounded by large keeled scales, excepting on a band on the posterior side of the femur where they are granular.
There is a transparent disk of the lower eyelid, which is covered by two scales. The plates of the head are smooth. There is a loreal plate which is higher than long, and projects at an angle between two preoculars. Of these the superior is large and extends partly over the eye, leaving only three narrow superciliaries. There are four well-developed supra-orbitals. The large internasal is about as wide as long. The frontonasals are well in contact by suture. The frontal is considerably longer than wide, as are also the frontoparietals. The interparietal is large, as wide as long, and would be a regular hexagon, but that the posterior border is rounded. The parietals are much smaller and trapezoidal, and longer than wide. No occipitals. Temporals small, squamous. Superior labials seven, separated from the orbit by a row of narrow suborbital scales. Inferior labials five. A symphyseal and an undivided postsymphyseal. Four infralabials, of which the first two are in contact, and the last two separated by flat scales, the fourth truncate posteriorly; no distinct pectoral scales.
Tho limbs are slender ; when pressed to the side, the fingers reach to the middle of the tibia, and the toes to a little beyond the elbow. The toes themselves are weak and slender. The first digit is rudimental, and the second and fifth are very short, and of subequal length on the fore foot; and on the posterior foot, the second is a little the longer. The third digit is shorter than the fourth on both feet. They are all protected by a single row of flat scales below. The femoral pores extend entirely across in front of the anal scuta; there are ten on each side of the middle line. Of anal scuta there are six, arranged as follows: Two small ones on the middle line, one of which is marginal, and the other anterior to it; one large one on each side of these, also marginal; and a small one on the external side of these, also marginal.
Color, brown; dark above, pale below, darkest on the sides. The exact color is probably lost, as the specimen is not in the best condition. Side of head with some yellow spots. Lips and throat white, the former with a dark brown spot on some of the labial scuta.

Measurements (M.)
Length from muzzle to vent .032
Length from muzzle to axilla: .015
Length from muzzle to auricular meatus: .0075
Width at auricular meatus: .005
Length of fore limb: .0105
Length of hand: .0035
Length of hind limb: .0145
Length of tibia: .0048
Length of foot: .0056

Species group: The parietale group ranges from Amazonia to Central America and includes 10 bisexual species (hexalepis, ioanna, rugiceps, southi, parietale, guianense, osvaldoi, snethlageae, caparensis and ferreirai), and the unisexual Leposoma percarinatum (Uzzell and Barry, 1971; Hoogmoed, 1973). The most obvious diagnostic features for this group include the presence of short and wide dorsal and ventral scales arranged in regular longitudinal rows. 
References
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Catalogue of the species of batrachians and reptiles contained in a collection made at Pebas, Upper Amazon, by John Hauxwell. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 94-103 [1886] - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Charles R. Bursey, Laurie J. Vitt and Jeanette Arreola. 2013. Leposoma parietale endoparasites. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 324-325
  • Narváez, Andrea and Sanmartín-Villar, Iago 2016. Leposoma parietale (Common Root Lizard) Mating Herpetological Review 47 (4): 671
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary notes of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
 
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