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Lycodon jara (SHAW, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Lycodon jara - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Twin-spotted Wolf Snake
G: Doppelpunkt-Wolfszahnnatter 
SynonymColuber jara SHAW 1802: 525
Lycodon jara — STOLICZKA 1871
Lycophidion bipunctatum PETERS 1863: 403
Leptorhytaon jara — THEOBALD 1868: 62
Lycodon jara — BOULENGER 1893: 350
Ophites jara — WALL 1923
Lycodon jara — SMITH 1943: 260
Lycodon jara — LANZA 1999
Lycodon odishii MALLIK et al. 2014
Lycodon jara — WALLACH et al. 2014: 394 
DistributionIndia (Assam, Ganjam, Arunachal Pradesh: Chessa, Itanagar, Papum Pare district, Uttar Pradesh: Dehra Dun – S. Mukherjee, pers. comm., A. Captain, pers. comm.), Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar

odishii: India (Odisha, West Bengal, Assam), Nepal; Type locality: Jail Training School, Lanj ipalli, Industrial Estate, Berhampur, Odisha, India (19°18'06.1" N 84°48'53.7" E). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionOviparous. A gravid female laid 3 eggs on 09.07.2013. Eggs were elongated and capsule shaped on laying and elongated elliptical before hatching. The egg sizes were 27 x 8.5 mm, 24 x 8.5 mm, and 27 x 7.5 mm (as reported for L. odishii).<br /><br />Hatching. First hatchling was seen on 12.08.2013 in the morning 5:30 a.m. after 34 days and the other 2 eggs hatched on 13.8.2013, i.e., the 35th day of laying. The total body lengths of hatchlings were 128, 141, and 146 mm (as reported for L. odishii). 
TypesLectotype: described and illustrated in P. Russell (1796: 19–20, pl. 14), fide WALLACH et al. 2014: 402.
Holotype: ZMB 4886 [Lycophidion bipunctatum PETERS 1863]
Holotype: ZSI 25992, Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata, India; male [odishii]
Paratypes. ZSI 25993, Female, Juvenile from Bali Kalua Temple, Aska Road, Sarguna Sahi, Berhampur, Odisha, India (19°19'21.1" N 84°46'30.8" E) and ZSI 25994, hatchling (sex undetermined) from (19°18'06.7" N 84°48'54.3" E). Another two paratypes RMNH/BBSR 175, RMNH/BBSR 176 were collected from Jail Training School, Berhampur (19°18'06.7" N and 84°48'54.3" E) and deposited in the Regional Museum of Natural History, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The RMNH/BBSR 175 was the mother of ZSI 25993 and RMNH/BBSR 176 [odishii] 
CommentDistribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). See map in Chaudhuri et al. 2015: Fig. 7.

Synonymy: L. odishii has been synonymized with Lycodon jara by Chaudhuri et al. 2015. L. jara was said to have no collar in adults or juveniles while L. odishii has.

Diagnosis (odishii). Snout to vent length ranges from 100-298 mm and total length from 128 - 354 mm (Table 1 in MALLIK et al. 2014); dorsal scales in 17: 17: 15 rows, scales smooth with single apical pit; snout projected beyond the lower jaw; nasal shield single; loreal in contact with preocular, but not with eye; preocular 1; postoculars 1 or 2; 5 number of infralabials always in contact with the chin shields; 167 - 188 ventrals, not angulate laterally; anal scute divided, 52 - 64 subcaudals and divided; hemipenis forked and spinous; head glossy-grayish-blackish brown, body glossy-purplish-greenish-black in adults and grayish black in hatchling; prominent collar always present behind the head; the collar is completely white in hatchlings and white with yellow blotches at the dorsal side in adults; twin spots are present on each scale of the body except the 6 - 7 rows of scales in the collar region.

Diet: Skinks and geckos. 
EtymologyL. odishii was named after the famous classical dance form native to Odisha, i.e., "Odissi." The costumes of Odissi dance is typical and makes the dancer look more elegant and graceful. The twin yellow speckles with a white collar and yellow blotches symbolize the beauty of the Odissi dance.
The common name, Subhendu's Wolf Snake (eng.) dignifies the efforts of Subhendu Mallik, Honorary Wildlife Warden, Khordha, Department of Forest and Environment, Government of Odisha; an amateur herpetologist, who successfully Wlited the snake rescuers of the state of Odisha and spreading the awareness campaign among public on snakes and snakebite through his organization Snake Helpline, despite near fatal venomous snakebite on 5 occasions. 
References
  • Agarwal I., Mistry V. K., Athreya R. 2010. A preliminary checklist of the reptiles of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): 81 – 93
  • Bahuguna A., Bhutia P. T. 2010. Extension of the range and redescription of Lycodon jara (Shaw) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Rec. zool. Surv. India 110 (4) : 37-39 - get paper here
  • Bhattarai, Santosh; Chiranjibi P. Pokheral, Baburam Lamichhane,, and Naresh Subedi 2017. Herpetofauna of a Ramsar Site: Beeshazar and Associated Lakes, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (1): 17-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Chaudhuri, Anirban; Vivek Sharma and Jayaditya Purkayastha 2015. Lycodon odishii, a junior synonym of Lycodon jara, with notes on morphological variation in this species (Squamata, Colubridae) Hamadryad 37 (1-2): 95-103
  • Chettri, Krishna and Damodar Thapa Chhetry 2013. Diversity of Snakes in Sarlahi District, Nepal Our Nature 11(2): 201-207
  • Das, A., D. Basu, L. Converse & S.C. Choudhury 2012. Herpetofauna of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4 (5): 2553–2568 - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Hussain A. and Roy P. 1992. Occurrence of Twin Spotted Wolf Snake Lycodon jara (Shaw) (Dipsadidae: Lycodontinae) in Rajaji National Park and Doon Valley, Uttar Pradesh. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 90: 112 – 113 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Lanza,B. 1999. A new species of Lycodon from the Philippines, with a key to the genus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Tropical Zoology 12: 89-104 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Mallik, Subhendu; Siba Prasad Parida, Ashis Kumar Mohanty, Asutosh Mallik, Kamal Lochan Purohit, Siddhartha Mohanty, Shakti Nanda, Sadhwi Sindura, Swetashree Purohit, Anuja Tarini Mishra, Sujata Sahoo 2014. A New Species of Wolf Snake (Serpentes: Colubridae: Lycodon) from Berhampur, Ganjam, Odisha, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (3): 205-216 - get paper here
  • Mukherjee, Debanik and S. Bhupathy 2007. A new species of wolf snake (Serpentes: Colubridae: Lycodon) from Anaikatti Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 14 (1):21-26. - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Über eine neue Schlangengattung, Styporhynchus, und verschiedene andere Amphibien des zoologischen Museums. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (October): 399-413 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha J. 2013. An Amateur’s Guide to Reptiles of Assam. EBH Publishers (India) - get paper here
  • Rahman, Shahriar Caesar;,, S.M.A. Rashid, Kanai Das, Luca Luiselli,∗ 2013. Composition and structure of a snake assemblage in an altered tropical forest-plantation mosaic in Bangladesh. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (3): 41-50 - get paper here
  • Russell, P. 1796. An account of Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel, containing descriptions and drawings of each species, together with experiments and remarks on their several poisons. George Nicol, London, 90 pp. - get paper here
  • Shah,K.B. 1998. Checklist of the herpetofauna of Nepal with english and vernacular names. NAHSON Bull., Nat. Hist. Soc. Nepal, Kathmandu 8 (1-4): 26-30
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Theobald, W., Jr. 1880. Reptilian fauna. In: Spearman, H.R. (Ed.), Gazetteer of Burma. Government Press, Rangoon, pp.605–640 - get paper here
  • Theobald, WILLIAM 1868. Catalogue of reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 37 (extra number 146): (2), vi, 7-88 - get paper here
  • Theobald,W. 1876. Descriptive catalogue of the reptiles of British India. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta: xiii + 238 pp. - get paper here
  • Tillack, Frank and Wolfgang Grossmann 2001. Ein neuer Nachweis zur Schlangenfauna Nepals: Bungarus niger Wall, 1908 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae). Sauria 23 (1): 3-9 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1909. Notes on snakes from the neighbourhood of Darjeeling. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 19: 337-357 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
 
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