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Lycodon ruhstrati (FISCHER, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Lycodon ruhstrati - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesLycodon ruhstrati abditus VOGEL, DAVID, PAUWELS, SUMONTHA, NORVAL, HENDRIX, RU & ZIEGLER 2009
Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati (FISCHER 1886) 
Common NamesE: Mountain Wolf Snake, Formosa Wolf Snake
G: Berg-Wolfszahnnatter 
SynonymOphites Ruhstrati FISCHER 1886: 16
Dinodon septentrionalis — BOULENGER 1893: 363 (part.)
Dinodon septentrionalis var. ruhstrati — BOULENGER 1899: 165
Dinodon septentrionale ruhstrati — STEJNEGER 1907: 370
Ophites ruhstrati — ZHAO & ADLER 1993
Lycodon ruhstrati — LANZA 1999
Dinodon ruhstrati — WEB SITE
Lycodon ruhstrati — ZIEGLER 2002: 241
Lycodon cf. ruhstrati — ZIEGLER et al. 2007
Lycodon ruhstrati — WALLACH et al. 2014: 395

Lycodon ruhstrati abditus VOGEL, DAVID, PAUWELS, SUMONTHA, NORVAL, HENDRIX, RU & ZIEGLER 2009
Lycodon ruhstrati abditus — LUU et al. 2018 
DistributionTaiwan, China (Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, northward to Anhui and west to Sichuan [elevation 800-1850 m] and SE Gansu), N Vietnam (elevation 500-1500 m)

ruhstrati: Taiwan (endemic)

abditus: Vietnam, Laos. Type locality: U Bo region, Phong Nha – Ke Bang NP, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam.

Type locality: Süd-Formosa [= South Taiwan], China.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: LMNMO 918 (formerly LMNMO 37c & 73), a 583+ mm male, and LMNMO 919 (formerly LMNMO 37b & 74)
Syntypes. REP 918-19
Holotype: ZFMK 86451 (GenBank: EU999209), adult female. Collected by Thomas Ziegler, 20 June 2006 (mentioned as Lycodon cf. ruhstrati in Ziegler et al. 2007), paratypes in ZFMK, MNHN and ZMB [abditus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of the genus Lycodon, is characterized by: (1) a loreal not entering the orbit; (2) 17 dorsal scale rows at the forepart of the body and at midbody; (3) upper dorsal rows distinctly keeled; and (4) a banded body and tail.

Diagnosis (ruhstrati): A species of the genus Lycodon, characterized by: (1) a loreal not entering orbit; (2) 17 dorsal scale rows at the forepart of the body and at midbody; (3) upper dorsal rows distinctly keeled; (4) 212-228 ventrals in males and 217-224 in females; (5) 105-114 Sc in males and 97-108 in females; (6) a relative tail length of 0.220-0.248 in males and 0.211-0.239 in females; (7) 33-46 bands on body; (8) the first band starting at Ven 8-16.

Diagnosis (abditus): A subspecies of Lycodon ruhstrati, characterized by: (1) a loreal not entering orbit; (2) 17 dorsal scale rows at the forepart of the body and at midbody; (3) three to five upper dorsal scale (including vertebral) rows distinctly keeled; (4) 214-224 ventrals in males and 220-229 in females; (5) 90-100 Sc in males and 92-103 in females; (6) a relative tail length of 0.208-0.237 in males and 0.207-0.236 in females; (7) 19-43 bands on body; (8) the first band starting at Ve 12-17; and (9) 6-7 + 3-4 + 2 much enlarged upper maxillary teeth, each group of teeth separated by a wide gap.
This new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies by (1) a lower ratio of TaL/TL in males, 0.208-0.237 (x = 0.218, s = 0.009) vs 0.220-0.248 (x = 0.230, s = 0.009) in L. ruhstrati ruhstrati, (2) a lower number of SC, 90-100 (x = 93.5, s = 3.2) in males and 92-103 (x = 96.0, s = 4.1) in females vs 105-114 (x = 107.8, s = 3.4) and 97-106 (x = 103.1, s = 3.8) respectively in the nominate subspecies, and (3) a lower number of bands on the body, 29-43 (x = 34.6, s = 3.6) vs 33-46 (x = 38.6, s = 3.6) in the nominate subspecies. 
CommentTaxonomy and nomenclature: For a discussion of nomenclatorial issues concerning the genera Lycodon and Ophites see Zhao & Adler (who listed this species under Ophites). Dinodon futsingensis POPE 1928, previously a synonym of L. ruhstrati, has been revalidated by VOGEL et al. 2009. Lycodon ruhstrati multifasciatus (MAKI 1931) has been elevated to full species status by VOGEL et al. 2009. 
EtymologyNamed after Mr. Ruhstrat, who collected the types in southern Taiwan.

abditus: The subspecific nomen of this subspecies is the Latin adjective abditus (-a, -um), meaning “hidden”, in allusion to the long confusion of this species with Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati. 
References
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