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Lycophidion capense (SMITH, 1831)

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Lamprophiinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesLycophidion capense jacksoni BOULENGER 1893
Lycophidion capense capense (SMITH 1831)
Lycophidion capense loveridgei LAURENT 1968 
Common NamesE: Cape Wolf Snake
multimaculatum: Spotted Wolf Snake
G: Kap-Wolfsnatter 
SynonymLycodon capensis SMITH 1831: 18
Lycophidium capense — BOULENGER 1893: 339
Lycophidium capense — ANGEL 1925
Lycophidion capense vermiculatum LAURENT 1968
Lycophidion capense vermiculatum — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 25
Lycophidion capense — BROADLEY 1998
Lycophidion capense — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 479
Lycophidion capense — WALLACH et al. 2014: 408

Lycophidion capense jacksoni BOULENGER 1893
Lycophidion jacksoni BOULENGER 1893: 340
Lycophidium abyssinicum BOULENGER 1893: 342
Lycophidion irroratum — SCHMIDT 1923 (fide LAURENT 1968)
Lycophidium abyssinicum — ANGEL 1925
Lycophidion capense jacksoni — LAURENT 1968
Lycophidion capense jacksoni — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 25
Lycophidion capense jacksoni — BROADLEY & HUGHES 1993
Lycophidion capense jacksoni — BROADLEY 1996

Lycophidion capense capense (SMITH 1831)
Lydodon capensis SMITH 1831
Lycodon horstockii SCHLEGEL (fide WILLIAMS & WALLACH 1089: 89)
Lycophidion horstokii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 412
Lycophidion Horstockii — BOCAGE 1866: 49
Lycophidium Horstokii — FISCHER 1884: 10 (?)
Lycophidion horstokii — GÜNTHER 1888
Lycophidion capense capense — LOVERIDGE 1936
Lycophidion capense capense — MERTENS 1938
Lycophidion capense capense — BOGERT 1942
Lycophidion capense capense — LOVERIDGE 1955
Lycophidion capense vermiculatum LAURENT 1968
Lycophidion capense capense — BOYCOTT 1992
Lycophidion capense capense — AUERBACH 1987: 156
Lycophidion capense capense — BROADLEY 1996
Lycophidion capense capense — BROADLEY & BLAYLOCK 2013
Lycophidion capense capense — BATES et al. 2014: 369

Lycophidion capense loveridgei LAURENT 1968
Lycophidion semicinctum SCORTECCI 1931 (not DUMÉRIL & BIBRON)
Lycophidion capense loveridgei LAURENT 1968: 476
Lycophidion capense loveridgei — RASMUSSEN 1981: 175
Lycophidion capense loveridgei — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 25
Lycophidion capense loveridgei — BROADLEY & HUGHES 1993
Lycophidion capense loveridgei — BROADLEY 1996 
DistributionNamibia, Botswana, E Republic of South Africa (Transvaal, Natal, Cape, Swaziland), Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, W Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, S Egypt, Zambia, Sudan, N/E/S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Malawi, Central African Republic, Cameroon

Type locality: Cape Town and Port Elizabeth; (“Kurrichane” (= Rustenburg district, Transvaal) (Loveride 1957, see Broadley 1996); restricted to Port Elizabeth by De Waal 1978.

multimaculatum: Congo (Brazzaville), Angola, N Namibia, S Zaire, W/N Zambia, Tanzania (Tatanda, Sumbawanga District), multimaculatum; Type locality: Novo Netonna, Banana, Lower Congo.

jacksoni: S Sudan, Ethiopia, NE Zaire, Uganda, W Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, W Tanzania (SE to the Uzungwa mountains and Morogoro); Type locality: Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

loveridgei: S Somalia to NE Tanzania , incl. Zanzibar; Type locality: Amani, Usambara Mts., Tanzania.

vermiculatum (synonym of capense): S Tanzania, Malawi, N/C Mozambique, border to Zimbabwe; Type locality: Mbanja, near Lindi, Tanzania. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: lost (fide Fitzsimons 1937, Broadley 1996)
Syntypes: BMNH [jacksoni]
Holotype: MCZ [loveridgei]
Holotype: BMNH 1940-1-18-74, male; parapes: BMNH, MCZ [pembanum] 
CommentSubspecies: Lycophidion capense multimaculatum BOETTGER 1888 and Lycophidion capense pembanum LAURENT 1968 have been elevated to full species status.

Synonymy: Lycophidion capense vermiculatum LAURENT 1968 has been synonymized with L. capense by BROADLEY 1996. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Jacobclarkus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Lycophidion.

Map: Laurent 1968: 482, Broadley 1996 (including subspecies)

Distribution: Has been erroneously listed for Benin but does not occur there (Hughes 2013).

Type species: Lycodon capensis SMITH 1831: 18 is the type species of the genus Lycophidion FITZINGER 1843: 27. The genus name is neuter. 
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