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Lygodactylus heterurus BOETTGER, 1913

IUCN Red List - Lygodactylus heterurus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
SubspeciesLygodactylus heterurus trilineigularis RÖSLER 1998
Lygodactylus heterurus heterurus BOETTGER 1913 
Common NamesBoettger's Dwarf Gecko 
SynonymLygodactylus heterurus BOETTGER 1913
Lygodactylus heterurus — KLUGE 1993
Lygodactylus heterurus — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 282
Lygodactylus (Lygodactylus) heterurus — RÖSLER 2000: 93
Lygodactylus heterurus — RÖLL et al. 2010

Lygodactylus heterurus trilineigularis RÖSLER 1998
Lygodactylus heterurus trilineigularis — PUENTE et al. 2009 
DistributionMadagascar, Nossi Be = Nosy Bé

trilineigularis: only known from the type locality: Ampahana, NE Madagascar.

Type locality: Nosy Bé, NW Madagascar Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 8953
Holotype: MTKD D39054 [trilineigularis] 
CommentDiagnosis. Lygodactylus heterurus is characterized as a member of the L. verticillatus group as defined above by its clearly whorled tail. It is distinguished from L. arnoulti, L. decaryi and L. verticillatus by having 3–5 distinct longitudinal black stripes on the throat (vs. no black lines on throat). L. blancae and L. klemmeri also show black lines on throat, but these are only present in some specimens and then rather diffuse in L. blancae (vs. always present and very distinct in L. heterurus), and they are slightly diagonal, directed towards the center of the throat in L. klemmeri (vs. not diagonal in L. heterurus). Another species with black lines on the throat, here not assigned to the L. verticillatus group, is L. ornatus; in this species, the throat lines are transversal, and L. ornatus in addition differs by its non-whorled tail. L. heterurus further differs from L. arnoulti and L. blancae by its white ventral colour in life (vs. mostly yellowish to deep yellow, especially in males); from L. decaryi by a lower number of preanal pores in males (9–11 vs. 15); from L. verticillatus by the grey dorsal colour with pairs of light grey markings (vs. more brownish colour without pairs of light markings); and from L. klemmeri by a dorsal pattern of pairs of light markings (vs. absence of such markings).

According to Rösler (1998), the main difference between the subspecies trilineigularis and the nominate subspecies are the number of black lines on the throat (three indistinct vs. five distinct). Other differences are extended dark pigment in preanal region, fewer supralabials and infralabials, fewer longitudinal vertebral scales, and fewer scales between eyes, but these are based on the comparison of only two vs. three type specimens. Puente et al. (2009) did not examine the type specimens of neither heterurus nor trilineigularis, but found some specimens from other localities difficult to assign to either of these forms: for example, specimens from Sambava, near the type locality of trilineigularis, agreed with that subspecies in showing rather indistinct gular stripes, although more than three were recognizable (Fig. 3g), and a largely dark pigmented preanal region (see figure on p. 385 of Glaw & Vences 2007).

Habitat. According to Rösler (1998), this species lives in trees in dry forest in north-western Madagascar as well as in humid areas of the North East. 
Etymologyno information given in original description. 
References
  • Boettger, O. 1913. Reptilien und Amphibien von Madagascar, den Inseln und dem Festland Ostafrikas. Pp. 269-375. In: Voeltzkow, A. Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse. Vol. 3. Systematische Arbeiten. Schweizerbart’ sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Nägele und Sproesser, Stuttgart
  • BORA, PARFAIT; J. CHRISTIAN RANDRIANANTOANDRO, ROMA RANDRIANAVELONA, ELISOA F. HANTALALAINA, RAPHALI R. ANDRIANTSIMANARILAFY,<br />DANIEL RAKOTONDRAVONY, OLGA R. RAMILIJAONA, MIGUEL VENCES,<br />RICHARD K. B. JENKINS, FRANK GLAW, AND JÖRN KÖHLER 2009. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE TSINGY DE BEMARAHA PLATEAU, WESTERN MADAGASCAR: CHECKLIST, BIOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):111-125.
  • Castiglia, Riccardo and Flavia Annesi. 2011. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of using the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Acta Herpetologica 6 (1): 35-45 - get paper here
  • D'Cruze, Neil; Jeremy Sabel, Katie Green, Jeffrey Dawson, Carlie Gardner, Janine Robinson, Georgina Starkie, Miguel Vences, and Frank Glaw. 2007. The First Comprehensive Survey of Amphibians and Reptiles at Montagne des Francais, Madagascar. Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 87-99 - get paper here
  • D’Cruze, N.; Köhler, J.; Franzen, M & Glaw, F. 2008. A conservation assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of the Forêt d’Ambre Special Reserve, north Madagascar. MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT 3 (1): 44-54
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Köln (ISBN 3-929449-01-3)
  • Krüger, Jens 2001. Die madagassischen Gekkoniden. Teil II: Die Geckos der Gattung Lygodactylus GRAY 1864 (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Gekkota 3: 3-28
  • PUENTE, MARTA; FRANK GLAW, DAVID R. VIEITES & MIGUEL VENCES 2009. Review of the systematics, morphology and distribution of Malagasy dwarf geckos, genera Lygodactylus and Microscalabotes (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Zootaxa 2103: 1-76 - get paper here
  • Röll, Beate; Heike Pröhl, Klaus-Peter Hoffmann 2010. Multigene phylogenetic analysis of Lygodactylus dwarf geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 327-335 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 1998. Eine neue Unterart von Lygodactylus heterurus BOETTGER, 1913 (Reptilia, Sauria: Gekkonidae). Sauria 20 (4): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Schönecker, P. & Böhle, A. 2004. Die Geckogattungen Madagaskars. Draco 5 (19): 56-67 - get paper here
 
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