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Macrovipera lebetina (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesMacrovipera lebetina lebetina (LINNAEUS 1758)
Macrovipera lebetina cernovi (CHIKIN & SZCZERBAK 1992)
Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (DWIGUBSKY 1832)
Macrovipera lebetina peilei (MURRAY 1892) [questionable subspecies]
Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1988)
Macrovipera lebetina turanica (CERNOV 1940) 
Common NamesE: Levantine Viper
G: Levanteotter 
SynonymColuber Lebetinus LINNAEUS 1758: 218
Vipera lebetina — WALL 1908: 804
Vipera lebetina — SMITH 1943: 486
Vipera xanthina (GRAY 1849) fide KHALIKOV (pers. comm.)
Vipera mauritanica (GRAY 1849) fide KHALIKOV (pers. comm.)
Vipera euphratica — BOETTGER 1880: 167
Vipera euphratica — BOULENGER 1887: 345
Daboia lebetina — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Macrovipera lebetina — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 383
Vipera lebetina — SHARMA 2004

Macrovipera lebetina lebetina (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber lebetinus LINNAEUS 1758
Vipera lebetina euphratica — SCHMIDT 1939
Vipera lebetina lebetina — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Vipera lebetina lebetina — WELCH 1994: 73
Daboia lebetina lebetina — OBST 1983: 232
Macrovipera lebetina lebetina — GOLAY et al. 1993

Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (DWIGUBSKY 1832)
Vipera obtusa DWIGUBSKY 1832
Vipera euphratica MARTIN 1838
Vipera lebetina BOULENGER 1920
Vipera lebetina euphratica SCHMIDT 1939
Vipera lebetina obtusa — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1960
Vipera lebetina euphratica — HAAS & WERNER 1969
Vipera lebetina obtusa — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Daboia lebetina obtusa — HERRMAN, JOGER & NILSON 1989
Daboia lebetina obtusa — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Macrovipera lebetina obtusa — GOLAY et al. 1993
Vipera lebetina obtusa — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera lebetina obtusa — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Macrovipera lebetina obtusa — SCHWEIGER 2009

Macrovipera lebetina peilei (MURRAY 1892)
Vipera peilei MURRAY 1892
Vipera lebetina peilei — SCHWARZ 1936: 244
Daboia lebetina peilei

Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1988)
Vipera lebetina transmediterranea NILSON & ANDRÉN 1988
Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea — GOLAY et al. 1993
Vipera lebetina transmediterranea — WELCH 1994: 121
Daboia lebetina transmediterranea
Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011

Macrovipera lebetina turanica (CERNOV 1940)
Vipera lebetina turanica CERNOV 1940
Vipera lebetina turanica — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Daboia lebetina turanica — OBST 1983: 232
Macrovipera lebetina turanica — GOLAY et al. 1993
Macrovipera lebetina turanica — LAITA 2013 
DistributionAlgeria, Tunisia, Cyprus, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, Syria,
Israel ? (perhaps extinct), Lebanon, Iran, W Pakistan, NW India, Jordan,
S Russia, (Dagestan), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, NW Africa, Arabia

cernovi: Turkmenistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, India (Kashmir), Pakistan; Type locality: bank of the river Murghab in the vicinity of town Iolotan, Marijsky district, Turkmenistan.

lebetina: S Turkey, Cyprus, N Iraq, NW Syria; Type locality: Oriente; MERTENS & MÜLLER (1928) suggested to restrict the type locality to Cyprus.

transmediterranea: Algeria, Tunisia (paratype: ZMUC)

turanica: Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

obtusa: NE Turkey, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Transcaucasia, Lebanon, Iran, Pakistan, Jordan; neotype locality: “Geok Tapa (Elizabetpol)”, now Gyanja, Azerbaijan.

Type locality: Transcaucasia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: not designated (formerly MAFR), lost fide Andersson (1899: 29)
Holotype: Re-19 (Zool. Mus., Inst. Zool., Acad. Sc. Ukraine) [cernovi]
Holotype: lost; neotype: ZISP 8595 [obtusa] 
CommentVenomous!

Type species: Coluber Lebetinus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Macrovipera REUSS 1927.

Synonymy: Listed as Vipera lebetina obtusa in Leviton et al. Macrovipera lebetina deserti, V. l. mauritanica have been elevated to full species status. According to molecular studies (Herrmann et al. 1999), Macrovipera lebetina is paraphyletic with respect to Vipera and Pseudocerastes, and Eristicophis. Macrovipera lebetina peilei is not recogized as subspecies by GOLAY et al. and MCDIARMID et al. (1999). Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Laidlawus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Macrovipera.

Reproduction: oviparous (although sometimes reported to be viviparous).

Illustration of M. l. turanica in KHAN (2002), Figure 151, which is NOT M. l. obtusa as indicated by the author (fide TILLACK & KUCHARZEWSKI 2004). 
Etymologythere are two diferent interpretations of this name: “lebetinus” referring to its origin in the Levant (Schleich et al. 1996), or (2) referring to the Greek kettle drummer of funerals (”lebes” or similar), referring to a warning signification (Lescure & Le Garff 2006). 
References
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