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Magliophis exiguus (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesMagliophis exiguus exiguus (COPE 1863)
Magliophis exiguus subspadix SCHWARTZ 1967 
Common NamesE: Virgin Islands Miniracer, Ground Snake
Spanish: Culebrita de jardín 
SynonymDromicus exiguus COPE 1862: 79
Dromicus exiguus — GARMAN 1887: 282
Dromicus exiguus — BOULENGER 1894: 126
Leimadophis exiguus — STEJNEGER 1904: 698
Arrhyton exiguus — MAGLIO 1970
Arrhyton exiguum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 585
Arrhyton exiguum — CROTHER 1999
Magliophis exiguus — ZAHER et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguum — HEDGES et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 423
Magliophis exiguus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Magliophis exiguus exiguus (COPE 1863)
Arrhyton exiguum exiguum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 586
Magliophis exiguus exiguus — HEDGES et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguus exiguus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Magliophis exiguus subspadix SCHWARTZ 1967
Arrhyton exiguum subspadix — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 586
Magliophis exiguus subspadix — HEDGES et al. 2009
Magliophis exiguus subspadix — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionPuerto Rico Bank; US and British Virgin Islands.

exiguum: U.S. and British Virgin Is.: Isla Culebra, St. Thomas, Hassel Isl., Tortola, Peter Isl., Virgin Gorda, Anegada [HR 30: 112]. Type locality: St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands; restricted to St. Thomas by Schwartz, 1967d.

subspadix: southwestern Puerto Rico, from the vicinity of Parguera east to Playa de Arroyo. Type locality: “7.0 km E Guánica, Puerto Rico.”  
TypesSyntypes: Unlocated.
Holotype: MCZ 81121 [subspadix] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Species in this genus have 19 midbody scale rows, 137–165 ventrals, 71–102 subcaudals, no apical scale pits, eight upper labials, and nine lower labials (Table 2). Magliophis differs from each of the other alsophiine genera in at least one of those characters. 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Schwartz, 1967; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982.

Arrhyton exiguus stahli has been elevated to full species status.

Type species: Dromicus exiguus COPE 1863 is the type species of the genus Magliophis ZAHER et al. 2009. 
EtymologyThe species name exiguus is a Latin word meaning little, short, scanty and/or poor, but is also used in the sense of “insignificant”, apparently referring to its small size.

The genus was named after Vincent J. Maglio, whose 1970 work ushered in the modern era of study of the West Indian xenodontine radiation; gender masculine. 
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Maglio, Vincent J. 1970. West Indian Xenodontine colubrid snakes: Their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 141 (1): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. 1967. A review of the genus Dromicus in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stahlia 9: 1-14
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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