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Malayemys subtrijuga (SCHLEGEL & MÜLLER, 1845)

IUCN Red List - Malayemys subtrijuga - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: (Malayan) Snail-eating Turtle
G: Malaiischer Schneckenfresser 
SynonymEmys hermanni SCHWEIGGER 1812: 311 (?)
Emys subtrijuga SCHLEGEL & MÜLLER in TEMMINCK 1845
Emys nuchalis BLYTH 1863: 82
Damonia (?) crassiceps GRAY 1870
Damonia oblonga GRAY 1871: 367
Damonia subtrijuga, BOULENGER 1889
Cistudo gibbosa BLEEKER 1889 (nomen nudum)
Malayemys subtrijuga, LINDHOLM 1931: 30
Malayemys subtrijuga — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 450
Malayemys subtrijuga — COX et al. 1998: 129
Malayemis [sic] subtrijuga — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 226
Malayemys subtrijuga — SCHILDE 2004
Malayemys subtrijuga — BROPHY 2004
Malayemys subtrijuga — TTWG 2014 
DistributionS Vietnam (Mekong drainage), Cambodia, E Thailand, Laos, introduced to Indonesia (Sumatra, Java)

Type locality: Java Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: RMNH 6082 (lectotype), 6084, and 6085;
Holotype: BMNH 1947.3.4.53 (? - see comment) 
CommentSynonymy: following Wermuth & Mertens 1977

BROPHY (2004) separated M. subtrijuga from M. macrocephala which was previously considered as a synonym of M. subtrijuga. According to BROPHY (2004) the two forms differ by the following characters (sorry about the cryptic abbreviations - the text was copied directly from BROPHY’s abstract):

Turtles from the Mekong River Basin retain the name Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel and Müller,1844), whereas those from the Chao Phraya and Mae Klong river basins, coastal areas of south-eastern Thailand, and the Malay

Peninsula are assigned the name M. macrocephala. M. macrocephala has four or fewer nasal stripes (99%) and an infraorbital stripe that is relatively wide at the loreal seam (98%of InfSW/HW=0.07-0.18) and does not extend or extends only slightly superior to the loreal seam (96%). Conversely, M.subtrijuga has six or more nasal stripes (89%) and an infraorbital stripe that is relatively narrow at the loreal seam (92% of InfSW/HW=0.02-0.06), extends completely superior to the loreal seam (96%), and usually joins the supraorbital stripe (64%). Female M. macrocephala also have relatively longer AnL and relatively shorter Vert5L and PecL than M. subtrijuga. Similarly, male M. macrocephala have relatively longer PPLL and AbdL, relatively shorter Pleu1L and PecL, and greater RLatK values than M. subtrijuga.

Types: Iverson (1986:50, 1992:138) listed BMNH 1947.3.4.53 as the holotype for M. subtrijuga based on an entry in the BMNH species catalog (King and Burke 1997). For a more detailed discussion on types see BROPHY 2004.

Behavior: nocturnal (Sumontha et al. 2016), but also diurnal (F. Ihlow, pers. comm. 19 April 2016).

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps, ponds) 
References
  • Blyth, EDWARD 1863. Report of the curator, zoological department. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 32 (1): 73-90. - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Brophy, Timothy R. 2003. Variation and Systematics of the Malayan Snail-Eating Turtle, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel and Muller, 1844) . Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental and Science Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.
  • Brophy, Timothy R. 2004. GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION AND SYSTEMATICS IN THE SOUTH-EAST ASIAN TURTLES OF THE GENUS MALAYEMYS (TESTUDINES: BATAGURIDAE). Hamadryad 29 (1): 63 – 79 - get paper here
  • Brophy, Timothy R. 2006. Allometry and sexual dimorphism in the Snail-Eating Turtle Malayemys macrocephala from the Chao Phraya River Basin of Central Thailand. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5 (1): 159-165.
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gray, J. E. 1871. Damonia oblonga, a new species of freshwater tortoise. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 8: 367 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1860. Description of a new species of freshwater tortoise from Siam. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 5: 501-502 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • HARTMANN, Timo; Flora IHLOW, Sarah EDWARDS, SOVATH Sothanin, Markus HANDSCHUH and Wolfgang BÖHME 2013. A Preliminary Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Kulen Promtep Wildlife Sanctuary in Northern Cambodia. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (1): 36–55 - get paper here
  • Ihlow F, Vamberger M, Flecks M, Hartmann T, Cota M, Makchai S, et al. 2016. Integrative Taxonomy of Southeast Asian Snail-Eating Turtles (Geoemydidae: Malayemys) Reveals a New Species and Mitochondrial Introgression. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153108, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153108 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Kuchling, Gerald 1995. Turtles at a market in western Yunnan: Possible range extensions for some southern Asiatic chelonians in China and Myanmar. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 1 (3): 223-226
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73
  • Lehr, E. & Holloway, R. 2003. Turtle trade in Cambodia. Reptilia (GB) (30): 64-71 - get paper here
  • Lindholm W.A. 1931. Zoologischer Anzeiger 97: 30
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2003. Chelonian Illustrations #10. Monotypic genera of the family Geoemydidae. Reptilia (GB) (30): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G.; Heng Sovannara, Long Kheng, Rohan Holloway, Bryan L. Stuart, and Thomas R. Rainwater 2008. Biodiversity, Exploitation, and Conservation of Turtles in the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, Cambodia, with Notes on Reproductive Ecology of Malayemys subtrijuga. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7(2): 195
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Schlegel,H. & Müller,S. 1845. Over de Schildpadden van den Indischen Archipel. In: Temminck,V. (1839-1847) Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige Commisie in Oost-Indie en andere schrijvers. Leijden folio. Afd. 1 Zoologie in 12 afleveringen, met - get paper here
  • Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum auctore Schweigger. Königsberg. Arch. Naturwiss. Mathem., 1: 271-368, 406-458.
  • Suzuki, Dai; Kengo Fuse, Mitsuhiro Aizu, Satoshi Yoshizawa, Wataru Tanaka, Kunio Araya, and Bounthob Praxaysombath 2015. Reptile Diversity in Food Markets in Laos. Current Herpetology 34 (2): 112-119 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
 
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