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Marinussaurus curupira PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES, 2011

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymMarinussaurus curupira PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES 2011 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas)

Type locality: “Ramal km 27,” Iranduba, state of Amazonas, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous (manual and phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: INPA 19855 (Field Number, Ponte 73; fig. 1); adult male, collected on August 30, 2007, by. V.T. Carvalho. Paratype: INPA 19856 (Field Number, Ponte 41; figs. 2, 3); adult male, collected at Sítio Bom Lugar (Renato Cintra), Iranduba, Amazonas, Brazil (3°07␣00␣S; 60°19␣01␣W), on August 27, 2007, by V.T. Carvalho. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): A medium-sized Gymnophthalmidae with robust head, elongate body, well- developed pentadactyl limbs, and tail distinctly longer than body. Frontonasal single; two pre- frontals; frontal large; frontoparietals absent; interparietal and parietals present, forming an almost straight line posteriorly; nasals divided; loreal and frenocular present; few temporals; three pairs of chin shields, none reaching oral border. Dorsal scales hexagonal, longer than wide, with angulate to nearly round posterior margin, smooth, imbricate. Lateral scales narrower than dorsals, laterally imbricate, with round or straight posterior margin. Ventral scales quadrangular, slightly imbricate, smooth. Precloacal and femoral pores present in males (females unknown); pores between three or four small scales. 
CommentType species: Marinussaurus curupira is the type species of the genus Marinussaurus PELOSO, PELLEGRINO, RODRIGUES & ÁVILA-PIRES` 2011.

For diagnostic morphological characters distinguishing Marinussaurus, Amapasaurus, Anotosaura, Arthrosaura, Colobosauroides, Dryadosaura,Ecpleopus, Kaieteurosaurus, Leposoma, and Pantepuisaurus see Table 2 in PELOSO et al. 2011.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific name is given after the Curupira, a mythological creature known from many regions in South America (e.g., Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The most common versions of the legend regard the Curupira as an anthropomorphic creature of short height, with dark skin and with the feet pointed backward. The Curupira protects the forest and its inhabitants, severely punishing those who hunt for pleasure or who kill breeding females or defenseless juveniles. In the Amazonian region of Brazil the legend is vivid in the minds of people of riverside communities and the Curupira is sometimes much feared. The Curupira is also known as Curupi (in Argentina).

Etymology (genus): The generic name Marinussaurus is given in honor of Marinus S. Hoogmoed, for his great contribution to the knowledge of the Amazonian fauna, for his friendship, and eternal willingness to teach. The genus is male in gender. 
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Peloso, Pedro L.V.; Katia C. M. Pellegrino, Miguel T. Rodrigues, and Teresa C.S. Ávila-Pires 2011. Description and Phylogenetic Relationships of a New Genus and Species of Lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Amazonian Rainforest of Northern Brazil. American Museum Novitates (3713): 1-24 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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