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Mauremys caspica (GMELIN, 1774)

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Caspian Turtle
G: Kaspische Wasserschildkröte
siebenrocki: Southern Caspian Turtle
ventrimaculata: Spot-bellied Caspian Turtle 
SynonymTestudo caspica GMELIN 1774: 59
Clemmys caspica WAGLER 1830
Emys Caspica — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 235
Emys Caspica — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Emys grayi GÜNTHER 1869
Clemmys caspia [sic] — WERNER 1920
Clemmys caspica caspica MERTENS et al. 1934
Clemmys caspica caspica MERTENS & WERMUTH 1961
Mauremys caspica MCDOWELL 1964
Mauremys caspica caspica PRITCHARD 1966
Clemmys caspica — TRUTNAU 1975: 134
Mauremys caspica — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Mauremys caspica ventrimaculata WISCHUF & FRITZ, 1996
Mauremys caspica siebenrocki WISCHUF & FRITZ 1997 (in FRITZ & WISCHUF 1997)
Mauremys caspica ventriculata [sic] — OBST 2003: 17
Mauremys caspica ventrimaculata — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Mauremys caspica siebenrocki — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Mauremys caspica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionSW USSR, S Russia (Caucasus, Dagestan), Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq,
Turkey, Bulgaria,
Greece (Crete, Ionian Peninsula, Limnos, Lesbos, Paros, Chios, Samos, Samothraki, Andros), Croatia (S Dalmatia), Monte Negro, Macedonia,
E Republic of Georgia, S Armenia, Azerbaijan, SW Turkmenistan, S Europe, Asia Minor

caspica: Iran etc.

siebenrocki: E Arabia, Mesopotamia, SW Iran, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia (Northern), Turkmenistan.

ventrimaculata: Iran (E slopes of C Zagros Mountains)

Type locality: Pyrsagat [Pusahat Creek (= Pirsagat) near Schamachie, Transcaucasia] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: Not located, but pictured in the original description
Paratypes: NMW [ventrimaculata]
Paratypes: NMW [siebenrocki] 
CommentSubspecies: Mauremys rivulata has previously been considered as a subspecies of Mauremys caspica, but was revalidated by Fritz & Wischuf (1997). Mauremys caspica leprosa has been elevated to species status. The subspecies caspica, ventrimaculata, and siebenrocki have been synonymized with the nominate form (Van Dijk et al. 2012).

Hybridization: Mauremys caspica and Mauremys rivulata hybridize (STEMMLER 1973, Vamberger et al. 2016).

Distribution: Reports from Cyprus represent M. rivulata which is now considered as a valid species by many authors. Not in Albania fide Miszei et al. 2017.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps, ponds) 
References
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