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Mauremys mutica (CANTOR, 1842)

IUCN Red List - Mauremys mutica - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesMauremys mutica mutica CANTOR 1842
Mauremys mutica kami YASUKAWA, OTA & IVERSON 1996 
Common NamesE: Yellowpond Turtle
G: Dreikiel-Wasserschildkröte, Chinesische Sumpfschildkröte
kami: Ryukyu Yellow Pond Turtle
Chinese: 黄喉拟水龟 
SynonymEmys muticus CANTOR 1842
Emys mutica GRAY 1844
Emys nigricans GRAY 1855 (part.)
Clemmys nigricans — STRAUCH 1862
Damonia nigricans — GRAY 1870 (part.)
Damonia mutica — BOULENGER 1889
Clemmys schmackeri BOETTGER 1894
Geoclemmys mutica — SIEBENROCK 1909
Clemmys mutica — SIEBENROCK 1910
Clemmys mutica — SCHMIDT 1927
Cathaiemys mutica — LINDHOLM 1932
Annamemys grochovskiae TIEN 1957
Annamemys groeliovskiae BATTERSBY 1960 (ex errore)
Mauremys mutica — MCDOWELL 1964
Mauremys nigricans — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Mauremys mutica — IVERSON & MCCORD 1989
Clemmys guangxiensis QIN 1991 (part.)
Mauremys iversoni PRITCHARD & MCCORD 1991 (part.)
Clemmys mutica — XIANGKUI 1994
Mauremys pritchardi MCCORD 1997 (part.)
Mauremys mutica — ZIEGLER 2002: 142
Mauremys mutica — OBST 2003: 17
Mauremys guangxiensis — OBST 2003: 17
Mauremys mutica — GORIS & MAEDA 2004
Mauremys guangxiensis — ZHOU & LI 2007
Mauremys mutica mutica — TTWG 2021

Mauremys mutica kami YASUKAWA & IVERSON 1996
Mauremys mutica kami — RHODIN et al. 2010
Mauremys mutica kami — TTWG 2021 
DistributionN Vietnam, S China (Guangxi, Zhejiang, Hainan, Hunan), Taiwan, Japan

Type locality: “Chusan” (= Zhousan) Island, Zhejiang (=Chekiang) Province, China

kami: Japan (Ryukyu Archipelago); Type locality: Okawa, Ishigakijima Is., the Yaeyama Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

iversoni: China (Fujian, Guizhou, Guangxi)

pritchardi: China, Myanmar (= Burma)  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.34
Holotype: SMF 7584 [schmackeri]
Holotype: KUZ 19541, adul female; paraypes: BMNH, OMNH, KUZ, NSMT [kami] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after Rhodin et al. 2010. Has been synonymized with Mauremys nigricans by various authors (e.g. WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977). Wink et al. (2001) suggested that Mauremys iversoni is a hybrid between Cuora trifasciata and M. mutica and M. pritchardi between M. mutica and Chinemys reevesii.Clemmys guangxiensis is synonymous with M. iversoni on the advice of J. B. Iverson (pers. comm. to Kraig Adler, 2 February 1993; cited in ZHAO & ADLER 1993: 169). Synonymy with Clemmys guangxiensis is preliminary, since no formal synonymization has been published. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data, together with morphological support and field information, also provide compelling independent evidence that Mauremys iversoni is of hybrid origin (PARHAM et al. 2001). Both specimens of M. iversoni analyzed by SPINKS et al. (2004) appear to be hybrids because (1) they fall on very short branches with respect to O.philippeni and (2) they are deeply nested within the larger genus Cuora with strong support. There is very little cyt b sequence divergence between either specimen of M. iversoni and that of O.philippeni (0.26 –0.61%), less divergence than within, for example, the polytypic geoemydid species Cuora amboinensis (C.a.couro ,C. a.amboinensis ,C.a.lineata ,and C.a.kamaroma) which ranges from 1.1 to 5.1%.This very low level of divergence is consistent with the interpretation that our specimens of M.iversoni and O.philippeni are either recent hybrids between the same female species of Cuora and male Mauremys and Ocadia ,respectively,or perhaps that these individuals represent the result of hybridization between an undescribed species of Cuora and either a species of Mauremys or Ocadia.

Genome: The 26-chromosome genome of M. mutica has been sequenced by Liu et al. 2022.

Karyotype: 2n = 52

Mauremys pritchardi is only known from the pet trade. Wink et al. (2001) suggested that M. pritchardi is a hybrid between M. mutica and Chinemys reevesii. DNA data from SPINKS et al. (2004) is consistent with the hypothesis that our specimen of M. pritchardi is a hybrid between a female M. mutica and another species. However, the SPINKS data are also consistent with the interpretation that M. pritchardi is a recently derived member of the genus Mauremys, and that M. mutica is composed of more than one species.

Types and type locality: The types of C. guangxiensis were purchased from local people, so the exact type locality is not known. Clemmys guangxiensis is considered a composite of Mauremys iversoni and M. mutica; The type series of Clemmys guangxiensis includes M. mutica and M. iversoni (C. Feldman, pers. comm. and PARHAM et al. 2001).

Distribution: M. iversoni is known only from the pet trade and markets (PARHAM et al. 2001). Possibly in Yunnan (China) but records from there are questionable (Wang et al. 2022).

Taxonomy: OBST (2003) lists Mauremys guangxiensis as a valid species.

Etymology. The subspecific epithet kami refers to the vernacular name of turtles in the Yaeyama Group, southern Ryukyus.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps, ponds) 
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