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Melanosuchus niger (SPIX, 1825)

IUCN Red List - Melanosuchus niger - , LR

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Higher TaxaAlligatoridae, Crocodylia, crocodiles (alligators) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Black caiman
Local names: Jacaré açu, Jacaré uassu, Jacaré assu, Jacaré guaçu, Caimán, Caimán negro, Jacaré jhu, Jacaré negro, Jacaré una, Cocodrilo.
G: Mohrenkaiman 
SynonymCaiman niger SPIX 1825: 3
Melanosuchus niger — KING & BURKE 1989
Caiman niger — POE 1996
Melanosuchus niger — ZUG et al. 2001: 462
Melanosuchus niger — MORATO et al. 2014: 146 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru

Type locality: "Fluminis Amazonium et Solimoens", Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ZSM 3,0 (now lost), 2480,0 and 3039,0; ZSM 2480,0 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber 1983: 380. 
CommentDistribution: Erroneously reported from Paraguay (fide Scott et al. 1990). Not in Venezuela (KOK et al. 2012).

Type species: Caiman niger SPIX 1825: 3 is the type species of the genus Melanosuchus GRAY 1862: 328. 
References
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Da Silveira, Ronis, João Valsecchi Do Amaral, William E. Magnusson and John B. Thorbjarnarson. 2011. Melanosuchus niger (black caiman) long distance movement. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 424-425 - get paper here
  • Da Silveira, Ronis; Zilca Campos, John Thorbjarnarson and Wiliam E. Magnusson. 2013. Growth rates of Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) and Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus) fron two different Amazonian flooded habitats. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (4): 437-449
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Foth, Christian; Paula Bona and Julia B. Desojo 2013. Intraspecific variation in the skull morphology of the black caiman Melanosuchus niger (Alligatoridae, Caimaninae). Acta Zool. 96 (1): DOI: 10.1111/azo.12045 [2015] - get paper here
  • Göldi, E.A. 1900. Hufförmige Verbreiterungen an den Krallen von Crocodilembryonen. Zool. Anz. 23: 149-151 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1862. A synopsis of the species of Alligators. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3)10 : 327-331 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed,M.S. and Gruber,U. 1983. Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands). Spixiana Suppl. 9: 319-415 - get paper here
  • King, F. Wayne & Burke, Russel L. 1989. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtles Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Assoc. Syst. Coll., Washington, DC, xxii + 216 pp.
  • Kunz, K. 2007. Neuer Schutzstatus für Mohrenkaiman und Guatemala-Skorpionskrustenechse. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 5 - get paper here
  • Laverty, Theresa M. and Andrew P. Dobson 2013. Dietary Overlap Between Black Caimans and Spectacled Caimans in the Peruvian Amazon. Herpetologica 69 (1): 91-101. - get paper here
  • Marioni, Boris; Ronis Da Silveira, William E Magnusson, and John Thorbjarnarson 2008. Feeding Behavior of Two Sympatric Caiman Species, Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus, in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Herpetology 42 (4): 768 - get paper here
  • Medem, F. 1963. Osteología craneal, Distribución geográfica y Ecología de Melanosuchus niger (Spix), (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae). Revista Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales 12 (45): 5-19
  • Medem, F. 1983. Los Crocodylia de Sur America. Vol. 2. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional. Bogotá. 270 pp.
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; <br />Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conserv Genet. 10:935–954
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Muniz, Fabio L.; Silveira, Ronis Da; Campos, Zilca; Magnusson, William E.; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni P. 2011. Multiple paternity in the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) population in the Anavilhanas National Park, Brazilian Amazonia. Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (3): 428-434 - get paper here
  • Niceforo, M.H. 1955. El caiman Yacare negro (Melanosuchus niger Spix) en Colombia. Caldasia 7 (32): 167-171
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • Poe, Steven 1996. Data set incongruence and the phylogeny of Crocodilians. Systematic Biology 45 (4): 393-414 - get paper here
  • Rangel Vasconcelos, W.; Hrbek, T.; Silveira, R. da; Thoisy, B. de; Araújo dos Santos Ruffeil, L.A.; Pires Farias, I. 2008. Phylogeographic and Conservation Genetic Analysis of the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger). J. Exp. Zool. 309A: 600-613
  • Rosenblatt, Adam E., Fernando Li, Ashley Holland, Peter Taylor and Leanna Kalicharan. 2015. Melanosuchus niger (black caiman) diet. Herpetological Review 46 (3): 430
  • Silveira, Ronis Da; Emiliano E. Ramalho, John B. Thorbjarnarson, and William E. Magnusson 2010. Depredation by Jaguars on Caimans and Importance of Reptiles in the Diet of Jaguar. Journal of Herpetology 44 (3): 418–424 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Spix, J. B. von 1825. Animalia nova sive species nova lacertarum quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspicius Maximiliani Josephi I Bavariae Regis suscepto collegit et descripsit Dr. J. B. de Spix. Lipsiae: T. O. Weigel; F. S. Hübschmanni, Monachii, 26 pp.
  • Taylor, Peter; Fernando Li, Ashley Holland, Michael Martin and Adam E. Rosenblatt 2016. Growth rates of black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in the Rupununi region of Guyana Amphibia-Reptilia 37 (1): 9 - 14 - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B.;McIntosh, P.E. 1987. Notes on a large Melanosuchus niger skull from Bolivia. Herpetological Review 18 (3): 49, 52 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
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