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Mesoclemmys gibba (SCHWEIGGER, 1812)

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Gibba (Toadhead) Turtle
G: Buckelschildkröte 
SynonymEmys gibba SCHWEIGGER 1812
Platemys Miliusii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 431
Platemys Gibba — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 416
Hydraspis gordoni GRAY 1868: 563
Hydraspis bicolor GRAY 1873
Mesoclemmys gibba — GRAY 1873: 305
Hydraspis gibba — BOULENGER 1889
Mesoclemmys gibba — SIEBENROCK 1905
Phrynops gibbus — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Phrynops (Mesoclemmys) gibba — GAFFNEY 1977
Mesoclemmys gibba — DUELLMAN 1978: 192
Phrynops (Mesoclemmys) gibbus — ALDERTON 1988
Phrynops gibbus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Mesoclemmys gibba — MCCORD et al. 2001
Mesoclemmys gibbus — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002
Phrynops gibbus — LEHR 2002: 71
Mesoclemmys gibba — HENNIG 2004
Mesoclemmys gibba — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Mesoclemmys (Phrynops) gibba — BONIN et al 2006
Mesoclemmys gibba — RIVAS et al. 2012 
DistributionC/NE Peru, E Ecuador, SE Colombia,
SW/NE Venezuela (Sierra Nevada de merida), Trinidad,
Guyana, Suriname, Brazil (Roraima, Mato Grosso, Pará)

Type locality: “Patria ignota (= locality unknown); Designated as “Amérique méridionale” (= South America) by Duméril & Duméril 1851: 20. Restricted to near “Cayenne, Guyane francaise” by Bour & Pauler 1987: 7.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 8756 
CommentIllustration: see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Type Species: Emys gibba SCHWEIGGER 1812 is the type species of the genus Mesoclemmys GRAY 1873. For a diagnosis of the genus see MCCORD et al. 2001.

Distribution: the report of M. raniceps from Peru (FERRONATO et al. 2011) is actually based on a misidentified M. gibba [see erratum to this paper]. For a distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002. Not in Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014).

Habitat: freshwater (rivers, swamps) 
References
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Bour, R. & Pauler, I. 1987. Identité de Phrynops vanderhaegei Bour 1973 et des espèces affines. Mésogée 47: 3-23
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Brito, E.S.; C. Strüssmann; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro; D.H. Morais; R.W. Ávila; V.A. Campos. 2012. New records and distribution extensions of three species of Mesoclemmys Gray, 1863 (Testudines: Chelidae) in Mato Grosso state, Brazil, with observations on terrestrial movements. Check List 8(2):294-297 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
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  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
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  • Ferronato, B. et al. 2011. New locality records for chelonians (Testudines: Chelidae, Podocnemididae, Testudinidae) from Departamento de Pasco, Peru. Herpetology Notes 4: 219-224 - get paper here
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  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
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  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
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