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Mesoclemmys raniceps (GRAY, 1855)

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesBlack-lined Toadhead Turtle 
SynonymHydraspis raniceps GRAY 1855
Hydraspis maculata GRAY 1873
Phrynops wermuthi MERTENS 1969
Phrynops (Batrachemys) nasutus wermuthi — ALDERTON 1988
Phrynops raniceps — IVERSON 1992
Batrachemys raniceps — MCCORD et al. 2001
Batrachemys raniceps — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002
Batrachemys raniceps — SOUZA 2004
Mesoclemmys raniceps — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Batrachemys (Phrynops) raniceps — BONIN et al 2006
Mesoclemmys raniceps — VAN DIJK et al. 2011
Batrachemys raniceps — RIVAS et al. 2012
Phrynops (Batrachemys) raniceps — PHILIPPEN 2012 
DistributionSE Colombia, E Peru, N Bolivia, Brazil (Amazon basin, Mato Grosso), Ecuador (Amazonia, Sucumbíos, Orellana).

wermuthi: Peru; Type locality: “Amazonian Peru”.

Type locality: “Brazil, Para”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesLectotype: NHM (ex BMNH); Bates collection, 1947.3.5.92, formerly NHM (designated by Bour & Pauler 1987). 
CommentFor a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Distribution: the report of M. raniceps from Peru (FERRONATO et al. 2011) is actually based on a misidentified M. gibba [see erratum to this paper]. Not in Venezuela fide Rivas et al. 2015.

M. raniceps and M. gibba can be distinguished by the head width in relation to caparace lenght. This proportion in M. raniceps are more than 20% in adult individuals, and less than 20% in M. gibba (Rueda-Almonacid et al 2007). 
EtymologyPhrynops wermuthi has been named in honor of Heinz Wermuth (1918-2002), German herpetologist. P. wermuthi has been synonymized with Phrynops raniceps by Bour & Pauler 1987. 
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. & Pauler, I. 1987. Identité de Phrynops vanderhaegei Bour 1973 et des espèces affines. Mésogée 47: 3-23
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool. 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Brito, E.S.; C. Strüssmann; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro; D.H. Morais; R.W. Ávila; V.A. Campos. 2012. New records and distribution extensions of three species of Mesoclemmys Gray, 1863 (Testudines: Chelidae) in Mato Grosso state, Brazil, with observations on terrestrial movements. Check List 8(2):294-297 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. 2006. Turtles of the Tiputini Biodiversity Station with remarks on the diversity and distribution of the Testudines from Ecuador. Biota Neotrop. 6 (1): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Ferronato, B. et al. 2010. Hatchling morphology of the Amazonian toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys raniceps [Gray 1855]) from Peruvian Tropical Andes (Testudines: Chelidae). Herpetology Notes 3: 211-214 [erratum available] - get paper here
  • Ferronato, B. et al. 2011. New locality records for chelonians (Testudines: Chelidae, Podocnemididae, Testudinidae) from Departamento de Pasco, Peru. Herpetology Notes 4: 219-224 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). British Museum, London, 79 pp. [1855]
  • Lescure, J., and J. Fretey 1975. Etude Taxinomique de Phrynops (Batrachemys) nasutus (Schweigger) (Testudinata, Chelidae). Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris 337: 1317-1328
  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2002. Chelonian illustrations #1: South American Toadhead Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (21): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Mertens,R. 1969. Eine neue Halswender-Schildkröte aus Peru. Senckenbergiana biologica 50: 132
  • MOLINA, FLAVIO B.; FABIO A. MACHADO & HUSSAM ZAHER 2012. Taxonomic validity of Mesoclemmys heliostemma (McCord, Joseph-Ouni & Lamar, 2001) (Testudines, Chelidae) inferred from morphological analysis. Zootaxa 3575: 63–77 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morcatty, Thaís Q. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Mesoclemmys raniceps (black-lined toad-headed turtle). Herpetological Review 46 (3): 382
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivas, Gilson A.; Tito R. Barros, Flavio de Barros Molina, Pedro Trebbau, and Peter C.H. Pritchard 2015. The Presence of Mesoclemmys raniceps and Mesoclemmys nasuta in Venezuela and Comments on the Type Locality of Hydraspis maculata (Chelidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jun 2015, Vol. 14, No. 1: 104-107.
  • Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum auctore Schweigger. Königsberg. Arch. Naturwiss. Mathem., 1: 271-368, 406-458.
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Dijk, Peter Paul van; John B. Iverson, H. Bradley Shaffer; Roger Bour & Anders G.J. Rhodin [turtle taxonomy working group] 2011. Turtles of the World, 2011 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5: 78 pp.; doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v4.2011
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