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Micrelaps muelleri BOETTGER, 1880

IUCN Red List - Micrelaps muelleri - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: English common name not available
G: Erdviper 
SynonymMicrelaps muelleri BOETTGER 1880: 137
Micrelaps muelleri — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947
Micrelaps moelleri — DISI 1985 (fide ZOOLOGICAL RECORD)
Micrelaps muelleri — BISCHOFF & SCHMIDTLER 1997
Micrelaps muelleri — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Micrelaps muelleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 438
Micrelaps muelleri — MEIRI et al. 2019 
DistributionIsrael, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon

Type locality: near Jerusalem, Israel.  
TypesLectotype: SMF 20349 (catalogue Boettger 9249a), paralectotype: NMBA 2129 (catalogue Boettger 9249, MERTENS 1967). 

Taxonomy: BISCHOFF & SCHMIDTLER 1997 classify this species as a member of the family Atractaspididae while most others (like AMR et al. 1997) consider it as a colubrid). Recent phylogenetic analyses show that Micrelaps is not closely related with other members of the Aparallactinae, hence it is considered as of unknown affinity (incertae sedis) by most recent authors (e.g. Portillo et al. 2018).

Type species: Micrelaps muelleri BOETTGER 1880 is the type species of the genus Micrelaps BOETTGER 1880. 
Etymologynamed after Friedrich Müller (1834-1895), a friend and colleague of G.A. Boulenger, who worked as physician and zoologist in Basel. 
  • Amr, Zuhair S; Disi, Ahmad M; Al Melhim, Walid N 1997. Additions to the knowledge of Muller's snake, Micrelaps muelleri Boettger, 1880. (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 10 (3-4): 163-168 - get paper here
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bischoff,W. & J.F. Schmidtler 1997. Nach 115 Jahren in Syrien wiedergefunden: Micrelaps muelleri Böttger, 1880 (Serpentes: Atractaspididae). Salamandra 33 (1): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Disi, A M 1985. A contribution to the herpetofauna of Jordan. 2. New records and a systematic list of snakes from Jordan. The Snake 17 (1): 31-42
  • Disi, A.M.; Modry, D.; Necas, P. & Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 408 pp.
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. and Anat Feldman. 2014. Micrelaps muelleri (erdviper) reproduction. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 518 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Portillo, F., Branch, W.R., Conradie, W., Rödel, M-O., Penner, J., Barej, M.F., Kusamba, C., Muninga, W.M., Aristote, M.M., Bauer, A.M., Trape, J-F., Nagy, Z.T., Carlino, P., Pauwels, O.S.G., Menegon, M., Burger, M., Mazuch, T., Jackson, K., Hughes, 2018. Phylogeny and biogeography of the African burrowing snake subfamily Aparallactinae (Squamata: Lamprophiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Rasmussen, J. B. 2002. A review of the African members of the genus Micrelaps Boettger 1880 (Serpentes Atractaspididae). Tropical Zoology 15: 71-87 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale G. Doria, Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, Y.L.; Babocsay, G.; Carmely, H. & Thuna, M. 2006. Micrelaps in the southern Levant: variation, sexual dimorphism, and a new species (Serpentes: Atractaspididae. Zoology in the Middle East 38: 29-48 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de & LAURENT,R.F. 1947. Revision d'un groupe de Colubridae africains: genres Calamelaps, Miodon, Aparallactus, et formes affines. Mém. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique (sér. 2) 29: 1-134
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