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Micrurus dissoleucus COPE, 1860

IUCN Red List - Micrurus dissoleucus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus (COPE 1860)
Micrurus dissoleucus dunni BARBOUR 1923
Micrurus dissoleucus melanogenys (COPE 1860)
Micrurus dissoleucus nigrirostris SCHMIDT 1955 
Common NamesPigmy Coral Snake 
SynonymMicrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus (COPE 1860)
Elaps dissoleucus COPE 1860: 345
Micrurus dissoleucus — AMARAL 1925: 18
Micrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus — SCHMIDT 1936: 202
Micrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 206
Micrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Micrurus dissoleucus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 445

Micrurus dissoleucus dunni BARBOUR 1923
Micrurus dunni BARBOUR 1923: 15
Micrurus dissoleucus dunni — SCHMIDT 1936: 203
Micrurus dissoleucus dunni — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 206
Micrurus dissoleucus dunni — WELCH 1994: 81

Micrurus dissoleucus melanogenys (COPE 1860)
Elaps melanogenys COPE 1860: 72
Elaps hollandi GRIFFIN 1916: 218
Micrurus dissoleucus melanogenys — SCHMIDT 1936: 203
Micrurus dissoleucus melanogenys — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Micrurus dissoleucus melanogenys — WELCH 1994: 81

Micrurus dissoleucus nigrirostris SCHMIDT 1955
Elaps gravenhorsti JAN 1858: 523
Micrurus dissoleucus nigrirostris SCHMIDT 1955: 355
Micrurus dissoleucus nigrirostris — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 206
Micrurus dissoleucus nigrirostris — WELCH 1994: 81 
DistributionPanama, Colombia, N Venezuela

dissoleucus: NE Colombia east to the Orinoco delta of E Venzuela

dunni: Canal Zone of Panama east into Colombia; Type locality: Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama.

melanogenys: N Colombia; Type locality: South America. “unknown locality” fide MALNATE 1971: 72

nigrirostris: Colombia (lower Magdalena region); Type locality: from Barranquilla, Colombia.

Type locality: Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 6781;
Holotype: ANSP 6807 [melanogenys] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy and subspecies partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Micrurus dissoleucus meridensis ROZE 1989 has been elevated to full species.

Diagnosis [dissoleucus]: A small species of coral snake in which the nuchal black ring is not part of the first triad on the body; head crossed posteriorly by a broad light band; no light crossband on snout; tail relatively short; caudals 21-23 in females, 24-28 in males; ventrals 201-212 in females, 175-201 in males; and triads of black rings on the body averaging 9 in both sexes [from SCHMIDT 1955].

Diagnosis [melanogenys]: A small coral snake with the black ring in triads, the nuchal ring not part of the first triad, and with an extremely short tail; caudals 17-19 in female specimens, 21-22 in male specimens. The number of black rings on the tail is correspondingly reduced, with no more than one complete triad present in the specimens known [from SCHMIDT 1955].

Diagnosis [nigrirostris]: A coral snake of small size, with the black rings in triads, the nuchal ring not a part of the first triad; snout entirely black; ventrals 190-208 in males, 212-228 in females; caudals 23-27 in males, 17-22 in females; number of triads, in both sexes, six to eight [from SCHMIDT 1955].

Diagnosis [dunni]: A small coral snake with the nuchal black ring not a part of the first triad of black rings on the body; caudals in males 23-28; ventrals in female specimens more than 212; and triads of black rings on the body 8-11 [from SCHMIDT 1955]. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1925. South American snakes in the collection of the United States National Museum. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 67 (24): 1-30 - get paper here
  • Arévalo-Páez, Miguel; Andrés Camilo Montes-Correa*, Efraín Rada-Vargas, Liliana Patricia Saboyá-Acosta and Juan Manuel Renjifo 2015. Notes on the diet of the Pigmy Coral Snake Micrurus dissoleucus (Cope, 1860) in northern Colombia (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetology Notes 8: 39-41 - get paper here
  • Barbour,T. 1923. Notes on reptiles and amphibians from Panamá. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (129): 1-16.
  • Barrio Amorós, César Luis and Daniel Calcaño 2003. First record of Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) from western Venezuela with comments on coral snakes from the eastern Andean piedmont (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetozoa 16 (1/2):73-78 - get paper here
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Supplement to "A catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera, and species.". Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 72-74 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Griffin,L.F. 1916. A catalog of the Ophidia from South America at present (June 1916) contained in the Carnegie Museum with descriptions of some new species. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 7 (3) [1915]: 163-228 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1858. Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces des serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. Paris (2) 10: 438-449, 514-527 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Larreal, J.T.; G.A. Rivas; C. Portillo-Quintero; T.R. Barros 2012. Squamata reptiles of a fragment of tropical dry forest in northwestern Venezuela (Lake Maracaibo region). Check List 8(6):1220-1224 - get paper here
  • Malnate, Edmund V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • RENJIFO, J. M. & M. LUNDBERG 2003. Una especie nuevo de serpiente coral (Elapidae, Micrurus), de la region de Urra, municipio de Tierra Alta, Cordoba, noroccidente de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales, 27 (102): 141-144.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze J A 1989. New species and subspecies of coral snakes, genus Micrurus (Elapidae), with notes on type specimens of several species. American Museum Novitates (2932) : 1-15 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas. Krieger, Malabar, Florida
  • Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1955. Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus in Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 34 (34): 337-359 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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