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Micrurus frontifasciatus (WERNER, 1927)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Bolivian triad coral snake 
SynonymElaps frontifasciatus WERNER 1927: 250
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — ROZE 1967: 34
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446
Micrurus frontifasciatus — PIRES et al. 2021: 72 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 255])

Type locality: “Bolivia”  
TypesHolotype: NMW = NHMW 18298 
CommentSynonymy: Campbell & Lamar 2004 list M. (l.) frontifasciatus as a synonym of Micrurus lemniscatus (without reference or justification). For a discussion of nomenclatural and historical issues, see Pires et al. 2021.


Distribution: Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus does not occur in Bolivia (T. Doan, pers. comm., 16 Apr 2012). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019, Pires et al. 2021: 66 (Fig. 45). 
EtymologyLatin from front, forehead, and fascia, band, thus frontifasciatus is forehead-banded, indicating the presence of the black frontal band. 
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Pires, Matheus Godoy; Darlan Tavares Feitosa, Felipe G. Grazziotin, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente, Nelson Jorge da Silva, Jr., and Hussam Zaher 2021. CHAPTER 2. HISTORICAL AND TAXONOMIC RELEVANCE OF COLUBER LEMNISCATUS LINNAEUS, 1758. In: Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr. et al. (eds.) Advances in Coralsnake Biology. Eagle Mountain Publishing, pp. 37-96 - get paper here
  • Roze, Jánis A 1967. A checklist of the New World venomous Coral Snakes (Elapidae), with descriptions of new forms. American Museum Novitates (2287): 1-60 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
  • Werner, F. 1927. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Wiener naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum (III. Teil). Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 143 [135?]: 243-257 [1926] - get paper here
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