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Micrurus fulvius (LINNAEUS, 1766)

IUCN Red List - Micrurus fulvius - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Eastern Coral Snake, Harlequin Coralsnake
G: Harlekin-Korallennatter 
SynonymColuber fulvius LINNAEUS 1766
? Coluber fulvius Var. (H.) HARLAN 1825: 155
Elaps fulvius — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 21
Elaps fulvius — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1215
Elaps fulvius — GARMAN 1884: 105
Micrurus fulvius barbouri SCHMIDT 1928: 64
Elaps fulvius — BOULENGER 1896
Elaps fulvius — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 153
Micrurus fulvius fulvius — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 224
Micrurus fulvius fulvius — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus fulvius — SLOWINSKI 1995
Micrurus fulvius fulvius — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 470
Micrurus fulvius — CROTHER et al. 2012
Micrurus fulvius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 447 
DistributionUSA (S/C/E Texas, Louisiana, S Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, SE North Carolina).

Type locality: Carolina.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: unknown to exist fide ROZE 1996: 177
Holotype: MCZ 13658, a male from Paradise Key, Dade County, Florida, United States [barbouri] 
CommentSubspecies: Micrurus fulvius fitzingeri (JAN 1858), M. f. maculatus and Micrurus fulvius microgalbineus (BROWN & SMITH 1942) are considered as subspecies of tener by LINER. The status of barbouri is unclear. [barbouri is not a valid subspecies--but tener is now considered a full species: Collins, 1991, Roze, 1996, Liner, 1994, Boundy in Crother, 2000].

Venomous! 
References
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Braswell, A.L.; Palmer, W.M. & Beane, J.C. 2003. Venomous Snakes of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, 31 pp.
  • Brown,B.C. & SMITH,H.M. 1942. A new subspecies of Mexican coral snake. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 55: 63-66 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Conant,R. 1978. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Harlan, R. 1825. Description of a variety of the Coluber fulvius, Linn. a new species of Scincus, and two new species of Salamandra. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5 (1):154-158 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Jackson, Dale R.;Franz, Richard 1981. Ecology of the Eastern Coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) in Northern Peninsular Florida. Herpetologica 37 (4): 213-228 - get paper here
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Liner, E. A.; Chaney, A. H. 1973. Micrurus fulvius fulvius. Hiss News-Journal 1 (6): 186
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • Link, Goethe 1951. Records of the coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in Indiana and Ohio. Natural History Miscellanea (92): 1-5
  • Linné, C. von [= Linnaeus, C.] 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • Meachem, Anne;Meyers, Charles W. 1961. An exceptional pattern habitat variant of the coral snake, Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus). The Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 24 (1): 56-58
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Roze J A; Tilger G M 1983. Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus). North American coral snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 316: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Slowinski J B. 1995. A phylogenetic analysis of the New World coral snakes (Elapidae: Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus) based on allozymic and morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 325-338 - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B.; Boundy, Jeff & Lawson,R. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters. Herpetologica 57 (2): 233-245 - get paper here
  • Smith, H. M.;Allen, E. R.;Holland, R. L. 1970. A new atavistic hyperxanthic chromotype in the coral snake Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus). Journal of Herpetology 4 (1-2): 80-83 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Flores-Villela, Oscar A. 1994. Deletion of the coral snake Micrurus fulvius from the herpetofaunal concept of Michoacán, Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30 (2): 76-77
  • Snyder, Richard C. 1945. Notes on the snakes of southeastern Alabama. Copeia 1945 (3): 173-174 - get paper here
  • Steen, David A., Michael Barbour, Christopher J. W. McClure, Kenneth P. Wray, John N. Macey and Dirk J. Stevenson. 2015. Landscape Scale Habitat Selection of Harlequin Coralsnakes (Micrurus fulvius) in Three Large, Protected Areas in the Southeastern United States. Copeia 103 (4): 1037-1042
  • STEVAN, LEE J. and EDWARD B. SELIGMANN 1970. AGAR-GEL AND ACRYLAMIDE-DISC ELECTROPHORESIS OF CORAL SNAKE VENOMS. Toxicon 8: 11-14
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Wallin, Tanya, James R. Lee and Thomas G. Jackson, Jr. 2013. Micrurus fulvius (harlequin coralsnake) diet. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 332
  • Weller, W.H. 1930. Micrurus fulvius in Ohio. Proc. Jr. Soc. Nat. Hist. Cincinnati 1 (10-11): 71-72 [unnumbered pages]
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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