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Micrurus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius BURGER 1955
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925 
Common NamesSouth American Coral Snake 
SynonymColuber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps lemniscatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1217
Elaps lemniscatus — BOULENGER 1886: 438
Elaps lemniscatus — GARMAN 1887: 285
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1919: 216
Micrurus lemniscatus — BEEBE 1946: 46
Micrurus lemniscatus — KORNACKER 1999: 155
Micrurus lemniscatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 448

Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber lemniscatus LINNAEUS 1758: 224
Elaps heterochilus BOULENGER 1896
Elaps gravenhorstii BOULENGER 1896
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BURGER 1955: 40
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — STARACE 1998: 358
Micrurus lemniscatus lemniscatus — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003

Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi ROZE 1967: 33
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — FROTA et al. 2005
Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi — PIRES et al. 2014
Micrurus carvalhoi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus diutius BURGER 1955
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus diutus [sic] — STARACE 1998: 361
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — FROTA et al. 2005
Micrurus lemniscatus diutius — FEITOSA et al. 2007

Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus (WERNER 1927)
Elaps frontifasciatus WERNER 1927: 250
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — ROZE 1967: 34
Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontifasciatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446

Micrurus lemniscatus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925
Micrurus helleri SCHMIDT & SCHMIDT 1925: 129
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — ROZE 1967: 35
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 212
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — DUELLMAN 1978: 261
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — FUGLER & WALLS 1978
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WELCH 1994: 85
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus lemniscatus helleri — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011 
DistributionN Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Goias, Rio Grande do Sul [HR 32: 60], Acre, Rio de Janeiro), Colombia, E Ecuador,
French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, E Peru, Argentina (HR 27: 34), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014),
Trinidad, Venezuela

lemniscatus: Brazil (Amapa, Para), N Guianas

carvalhoi: NE/C Brazil (Bahia, Alagoas, DF, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, São Paulo, Tocantins), Argentina (Corrientes), Paraguay (Amambay, Caaguazú)

diutius: Trinidad, E Venezuela (incl. Carabobo), C Guianas

frontifasciatus: Bolivia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 255]); Type locality: “Bolivia”

helleri: Amazon region of N Brazil, S Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

Type locality: “Asia” (fide LINNAEUS 1758; in error); Schmidt and Walker (1943) restricted the type locality to Belem. Para, Brazil; however, Roze (1967) thought that the specimen most likely came from the northern Guianas.

Type locality: Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: NRM (also given as RMS)
Lectotype: NRS L-93, designated by Roze, 1989.
Holotype: NHMW = NMW 18298 [frontifasciatus]
Holotype: FMNH 5577, male, "Pozuzo, Huanuco. Peru" [helleri]
Holotype: FMNH 34472, male, "Tunapuna, Trinidad" [diutius]
Holotype: USNM 76341, male, "Catanduva, Sao Paulo, Brazil"; ZMB 2727 seems to be the iconotype from Seba 1734 [carvalhoi] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 who list Micrurus lemniscatus multicinctus AMARAL 1944 as synonym of Micrurus frontalis altirostris. Campbell & Lamar 2004 list M. (l.) frontifasciatus as a synonym of Micrurus lemniscatus (without reference or justification).

Venomous!

Max total length: 115 cm.

Diagnosis. (1) Dorsal pattern of white, red, and black triads; (2) hemipenis and tail relatively short; (3) two supralabials entering orbit; (4) mental usually

separated from chinshields by medial contact of first pair of infralabials; (5) anal scale usually divided; (6) first triad complete; (7) 2-6 red vertebrals separating

first triad from parietals; (8) dorsal surface of head black with white band crossing snout; margins of scales within white band not edged in black; parietals partly red; (9) extent of black pigment in red and white rings variable; (10) white rings longest ventrally, never constricted or broken ventrally by black rings; (11) mental and some anterior infralabials entirely black (i.e., band across snout broken by

entirely black infralabials) or red; (12) 9-15 triads on the body and 1-1.67 triads on the tail in Bolivian specimens (7-17 and 0.67-2 across the species range, Campbell and Lamar, 1989); (13) white rings always smaller than exterior black rings in Bolivian specimens and elsewhere (Campbell and Lamar, 1989; Harvey et al. 2003).

Distribution: Micrurus lemniscatus frontifasciatus does not occur in Bolivia (T. Doan, pers. comm., 16 Apr 2012). 
References
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