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Micrurus pyrrhocryptus (COPE, 1862)

IUCN Red List - Micrurus pyrrhocryptus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymElaps pyrrhocryptus COPE 1862: 347
Elaps marcgravii (WIED-NEUWIED) — BOULENGER 1896:428; P
Elaps simonsii BOULENGER 1902: 338
Elaps frontalis — LÖNNBERG 1902:461
Micrurus lemniscatus SERIÉ 1936
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus lemniscatus frontalis AMARAL 1944 (part.)
Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus SHREVE 1953
Micrurus tricolor HOGE 1956:67
Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 209
Micrurus frontalis tricolor - ROZE 1983
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus - CEI 1993
Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis tricolor — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus tricolor — ROZE 1994: 179
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 37
Micrurus tricolor — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 172
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 225
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005: 43
Micrurus pyrrhocryptus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 453 
DistributionSW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso), W/SW Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina (Santa Fe, Mendoza, Formosa)

Type locality: “Vermejo River, Argentine Chaco” = Río Bermejo, Argentina.

tricolor: Brazil (Mato Grosso), adjacent Paraguay, Bolivia; Type locality: Garandazal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 5395
Holotype: IB 16290 [tricolor] 
CommentSynonymy partly following that of CEI 1993 and HARVEY et al. 2003, and CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004.

Subspecies: Micrurus tricolor has been considered as a subspecies or synonym of pyrrhocryptus, but has been elevated to species status in 1999.

Venomous!

Similar species: Mimicked by the nonvenomous species Lystrophis pulcher.

Diagnosis.—(1) Dorsal pattern of white, red, and black triads; (2) hemipenis and tail relatively short; (3) two supralabials entering orbit; (4) mental usually separated from chinshields by medial contact of first pair of infralabials; (5) anal scale usually divided; (6) first triad complete; (7) 5-12 red vertebrals separating first triad from parietals; (8) all dorsal head scales including parietals black, edged in white; (9) red rings with heavier black apices than white rings; (10) white rings longest dorsally, constricted or broken ventrally by black rings; (11) chin red with no to moderate black mottling and edging of scales; mental mostly or entirely red; (12) 6-14 triads on body, 1-1.67 on tail [HARVEY et al. 2003]. 
References
  • Boulenger, George A. 1902. List of the fishes, batrachians, and reptiles collected by the late Mr. P. O. Simons in the Provinces of Mendoza and Cordova, Argentina. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 9 (53): 336-339 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Catalogues of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana Paraguay, Vermejo and Uruguay rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U.S.N.; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michier, U. S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the su Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1862: 346-359. - get paper here
  • Da SILVA, N. J. JR. & J. W. JR. SITES 1999. Revision of the Micrurus frontalis complex (Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetological Monographs 13: 142-194 - get paper here
  • DI-BERNARDO, MARCOS; MARCIO BORGES-MARTINS & NELSON JORGE DA SILVA, JR. 2007. A new species of coralsnake (Micrurus: Elapidae) from southern Brazil. Zootaxa 1447: 1–26 - get paper here
  • Harvey M. B., J. Aparicio E, and L. Gonzalez A. 2003. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia: Part 1. The coralsnakes (Elapidae: Micrurus). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 72: 1-52
  • Hoge,A.R. 1956. Uma nova especie de Micrurus (Serp. Elap.) do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 27: 67-72 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185.
  • Schmidt, D. & Kunz, K. 2005. Ernährung von Schlangen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 159 pp. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi G J. 1990. El genero Micrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) en la Republica Argentina. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 8 (2): 343-368.
  • Shreve, Benjamin 1953. Notes on the races of Micrurus frontalis (Duméril, Duméril and Bibron). Breviora (16): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 2005. Einige Bemerkungen zur Naturgeschichte, Pflege und Nachzucht der “Falschen Korallenschlange’ Lystrophis pulcher (JAN 1863). Herpetofauna 25 (142): 25-35 [2003/2004] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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