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Micrurus tener BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Micrurus tener - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesMicrurus tener fitzingeri (JAN 1858)
Micrurus tener maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus tener microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus tener tener (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853) 
Common Namestener: Texas Coral Snake 
SynonymMicrurus tener tener (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Elaps tenere BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 22
Elaps tenere BAIRD & GIRARD 1853:22
Micrurus fulvius tenere — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Micrurus fulvius tener — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 225
Micrurus tener — COLLINS 1991
Micrurus fulvius tenere — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener — LINER 1994
Micrurus fulvius tenere — ROZE 1996: 177
Micrurus fulvius tenere — DIXON 2000
Micrurus tener — CROTHER 2000
Micrurus fulvius tener — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 473
Micrurus fulvius tener — TENNANT 2003: 483
Micrurus tener — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 195
Micrurus tener — CROTHER et al. 2012
Micrurus tener — WALLACH et al. 2014: 455

Micrurus tener microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus fitzingeri microgalbineus BROWN & SMITH 1942
Micrurus fitzingeri microgalbineus — TAYLOR 1949: 212
Micrurus fulvius microgalbineus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener microgalbineus — LINER 1994
Micrurus tener microgalbineus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener fitzingeri (JAN 1858)
Elaps fitzingeri JAN 1858: 316
Micrurus fulvius fitzingeri
Elaps fulvius BOULENGER 1896
Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri
Micrurus fitzingeri — SCHMIDT 1928
Micrurus fitzingeri — SCHMIDT 1932
Micrurus tener fitzingeri — LINER 1994
Micrurus fitzingeri — CASTRO-FRANCO & BUSTOS-ZAGAL 1994
Micrurus fulvius fitzingeri — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener fitzingeri — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus fulvius maculatus ROZE 1967
Micrurus fulvius maculatus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus tener maculatus — LINER 1994
Micrurus tener maculatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 197

Micrurus tener tamaulipensis LAVIN-MURCIO & DIXON 2004
Micrurus tamaulipensis LAVIN-MURCIO & DIXON 2004
Micrurus tamaulipensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 455
Micrurus tener tamaulipensis — HEIMES 2016: 341 
Distributionfitzingeri: Mexico (Guanajuato and Queretaro to Morelos, Hidalgo)

maculatus: Mexico (S Tamaulipas, N Veracruz); Type locality: Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

microgalbineus: Mexico (SW Tamaulipas, CE/E San Luis Potosí to C Guanajuato)

tener: USA (SW Arkansas and Louisiana to WC Texas), Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas)

tamaulipensis: Mexico (Tamaulipas: Sierra de Tamaulipas);Type locality: Sierra de Tamaulipas, RAncho La Sauceda, ca. 50 km N Gonazlez, 750-1000 m elevation (23° 06’ 47’’ N, 98° 20’ 19’’ W), Tamaulipas, Mexico. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM
Holotype: ZMH R03028 (formerly no. 5685), male, ded. Dr. E. KALLERT Feb. 10, 1930 [maculatus]
Holotype: ITT 751 [tamaulipensis] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Streicher et al. 2016 suggested to synonymize all subspecies with the nominate form, M. tener.

Distribution: see map 20 in Campbell & Lamar 2004: 170

Diagnosis (tamaulipensis): Similar to M. tener, but differing in lacking a yellow head ring across the interparietal suture; the presence of a black head cap that extends beyond the tip of the parietal scales four to six scales; the chin and throat are mostly black, occasionally with small obscure red and orange marks. The tail is tricolored, black, yellow, and red. 
EtymologyThe specific name is the Latin word tener, meaning "soft or delicate," in reference to the graceful features of this snake. 
References
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown,B.C. & SMITH,H.M. 1942. A new subspecies of Mexican coral snake. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 55: 63-66 - get paper here
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Collins J T 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 22 (2): 42-43 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Farr, William L. and Thad Warren. 2013. Micrurus tener (Texas coralsnake) aberrant pattern. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 694-695
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Lavin-Murcio, Pablo A. & James R. Dixon 2004. A new species of coral snake (Serpentes, Elapidae) from the Sierra de Tamaulipas, Mexico. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 3-8 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Cruz A 2016. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. ZooKeys 594: 123-141, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.594.8289 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Efrén M. Hernández Navarro y Luis A. Escobedo-Morales 2015. Herpetofauna de Guanajuato: Un análisis histórico y contemporáneo de su conocimiento Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 1(1): 1–14 - get paper here
  • Oyervides, Mayra and Frederic Zaidan, III. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Micrurus tener (Texas coralsnake). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 574
  • Roze, J. A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas. Krieger, Malabar, Florida
  • Roze, Jánis A 1967. A checklist of the New World venomous Coral Snakes (Elapidae), with descriptions of new forms. American Museum Novitates (2287): 1-60 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1933. Preliminary account of the coral snakes of Central America and Mexico. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 29-40. - get paper here
  • Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Jay P. McEntee, Laura C. Drzich, Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Utpal Smart, Christopher L. Parkinson, Tereza Jezkova, Eric N. Smith and Todd A. Castoe 2016. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes. Evolution 70 (7): 1435–1449, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12967 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1949. A preliminary account of the herpetology of the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (2): 169-215 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A.; Elí García-Padilla, Francisco E. Leyto-Delgado, and Leccinum J. García- Morales 2015. New records and distributional range extensions for amphibians and reptiles from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 208-214 - get paper here
  • Torre-Loranca, M.A. de la; Aguirre-León, G. & López-Luna, M.A. 2006. Coralillos verdaderos (Serpentes: Elapidae) y Coralillos falsos (Serpentes: Colubridae) de Veracruz, México. Acta Zool. Mex. 22 (3): 11-22
  • Trauth, Stanley, E.; Henry W. Robison and Michael V. Plummer 2004. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, 422 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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