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Montivipera bornmuelleri (WERNER, 1898)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera bornmuelleri - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesLebanon Viper 
SynonymVipera bornmuelleri WERNER 1898: 218
Vipera lebetina bornmuelleri WERNER 1902
Daboia raddei bornmuelleri — OBST 1983: 233
Lachesis libanotica HEMPRICH 1827 (nomen nudum)
Vipera bornmülleri — ESTERBAUER 1985
Vipera xanthina bornmuelleri — GOLAY et al. 1993: 291
Vipera bornmuelleri — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera bornmuelleri — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 403
Montivipera bornmuelleri — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — PHELPS 2010 
DistributionLebanon, Israel, Syria

Type locality: “Libanon” (restricted by WERNER 1922) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesLectotype: ZSM (SLM) 1653 (lost), adult, collected by Bornüller, no date. Lectotype designation by Werner (1922). 

Synonymy: Two specimens in Werner’s type series have been described as V. bulgardaghica by NILSON & ANDREN (1985) which is a synonym of Vipera xanthina (JOGER, pers. comm.).

Distribution: Has been erroneously reported from Jordan (e.g. by Harding and Welch 1980).

Reproduction: (ovo-) viparous. 
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Esterbauer,H. 1985. Zur Herpetofauna Südwestsyriens. Herpetofauna 7 (38): 23-34 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • Joger U 1983. Book Review: Harding & Welch, Venomous snakes of the world, Pergamon Press, 1980. Salamandra 19 (1/2): 99-102
  • Joger,U. & M. Meder. 1997. Taxonomic Resolution of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Herpetology '97, Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology 2-10 August 1997 Prague, Czech Republic, Rocek,Z. & S. Hart (eds.), 244 p.:106.
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Über Lachesis libanotica und den Status von Vipera bornmuelleri. Senck. biol. 48 (3): 153-159
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1985. Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 3. Taxonomic status of the Bulgar Dagh viper in south Turkey. Journal of Herpetology 19 (2): 276-283 - get paper here
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1986. The mountain vipers of the Middle East - the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 20: 1-90
  • Nilson G; Andren C; Flardh B 1990. Vipera albizona, a new mountain viper from central Turkey, with comments on isolating effects of the Anatolian 'Diagonal'. Amphibia-Reptilia 11(3): 285-294 - get paper here
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C.; ORLOV,N.; JOGER,U. & HERRMANN,H. W. 1999. Taxonomic position of the Vipera xanthina complex. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 99-102
  • Obst,F.J. 1983. Zur Kenntnis der Schlangengattung Vipera. Zool. Abh. staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 38: 229-235
  • Stümpel, N. 2007. Montivipera xanthina. Reptilia (GB) (51): 43-46 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Werner, FRANZ 1898. Über einige neue Reptilien und einen neuen Frosch aus dem cilicischen Taurus. Zool. Anz. 21 (555): 217-223. - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1902. Die Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna von Kleinasien. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. (math.-Naturw. Klasse 1) 111: 1057-1121
  • Werner,F. 1922. Synopsis der Schlangenfamilien der Amblycephalidae und Viperidae nebst Uebersicht über die kleineren Familien und die colubriden der Acrochordinengruppe auf Grund des Boulengerschen Schlangenkatalogs (1893-1896). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 8A: 185-244
  • Werner,F. 1939. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von Syrien. Abh. Ber. Mus. Naturkunde Vorgesch. Magdeburg 7:211-223.
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