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Montivipera bornmuelleri (WERNER, 1898)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera bornmuelleri - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Lebanon Viper
G: Libanesische Bergotter 
SynonymVipera bornmuelleri WERNER 1898: 218
Vipera lebetina bornmuelleri WERNER 1902
Daboia raddei bornmuelleri — OBST 1983: 233
Lachesis libanotica HEMPRICH 1827 (nomen nudum)
Vipera bornmülleri — ESTERBAUER 1985
Vipera xanthina bornmuelleri — GOLAY et al. 1993: 291
Vipera bornmuelleri — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera bornmuelleri — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 403
Montivipera bornmuelleri — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — GRUBER 2009
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — PHELPS 2010
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — WALLACH et al. 2014: 458
Montivipera bornmuelleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 458 
DistributionLebanon, Israel, Syria

Type locality: “Libanon” (restricted by WERNER 1922)  
Reproduction(ovo-) viparous. 
TypesLectotype: lost, was ZSM (SLM) 1653 (lost), adult, collected by Bornüller, no date. Lectotype designation by Werner (1922). See also Franzen & Glaw 2007. 

Synonymy: Two specimens in Werner’s type series have been described as V. bulgardaghica by NILSON & ANDREN (1985) which is a synonym of Vipera xanthina (JOGER, pers. comm.).

Distribution: Has been erroneously reported from Jordan (e.g. by Harding and Welch 1980). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Joseph Friedrich Nicolaus Bornmiiller (1862-1948), a German botanist and Director of the Herbarium, Weimar (1903-1938). 
  • Abi-Rizk, Alain; Mohamad Rima, Souad Hraoui Bloquet, Riyad Sadek, Yvonne Sleiman, Ziad Fajloun, and Walid Hleihel 2017. Lethal, Hemorrhagic, and Necrotic Effects of Montivipera bornmuelleri Venom. Current Herpetology Feb 2017, Vol. 36, No. 1: 58-62. - get paper here
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Eppler, A. 2016. Auf der Suche nach der Libanesischen Bergotter (Montivipera bornmuelleri). Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (3): 52-54 - get paper here
  • Esterbauer, H. 1985. Zur Herpetofauna Südwestsyriens. Herpetofauna 7 (38): 23-34 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • Joger U 1983. Book Review: Harding & Welch, Venomous snakes of the world, Pergamon Press, 1980. Salamandra 19 (1-2): 99-102 - get paper here
  • Joger,U. & M. Meder. 1997. Taxonomic Resolution of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Herpetology '97, Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology 2-10 August 1997 Prague, Czech Republic, Rocek,Z. & S. Hart (eds.), 244 p.:106.
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Über Lachesis libanotica und den Status von Vipera bornmuelleri. Senckenbergiana biologica 48 (3): 153-159
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1985. Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 3. Taxonomic status of the Bulgar Dagh viper in south Turkey. Journal of Herpetology 19 (2): 276-283 - get paper here
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1986. The mountain vipers of the Middle East - the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). Bonner Zool. Monogr. 20: 1-90 - get paper here
  • Nilson G; Andren C; Flardh B 1990. Vipera albizona, a new mountain viper from central Turkey, with comments on isolating effects of the Anatolian 'Diagonal'. Amphibia-Reptilia 11(3): 285-294 - get paper here
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C.; ORLOV,N.; JOGER,U. & HERRMANN,H. W. 1999. Taxonomic position of the Vipera xanthina complex. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 99-102
  • Obst, F.J. 1983. Zur Kenntnis der Schlangengattung Vipera. Zool. Abh. staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 38: 229-235
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Stümpel, N. 2007. Montivipera xanthina. Reptilia (GB) (51): 43-46 - get paper here
  • Stümpel, Nikolaus; Mehdi Rajabizadeh, Aziz Avcı, Wolfgang Wüster, Ulrich Joger 2016. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al. 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.025 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, FRANZ 1898. Über einige neue Reptilien und einen neuen Frosch aus dem cilicischen Taurus. Zool. Anz. 21 (555): 217-223. - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1902. Die Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna von Kleinasien. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. (math.-Naturw. Klasse 1) 111: 1057-1121
  • Werner,F. 1922. Synopsis der Schlangenfamilien der Amblycephalidae und Viperidae nebst Uebersicht über die kleineren Familien und die colubriden der Acrochordinengruppe auf Grund des Boulengerschen Schlangenkatalogs (1893-1896). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 8A: 185-244
  • Werner,F. 1939. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von Syrien. Abh. Ber. Mus. Naturkunde Vorgesch. Magdeburg 7:211-223.
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