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Montivipera xanthina (GRAY, 1849)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera xanthina - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Coastal Viper, Ottoman Viper
G: (Kleinasiatische oder Türkische) Bergotter 
SynonymDaboia xanthina GRAY 1849: 24
Vipera bulgardaghica NILSON & ANDREN 1985
Vipera bulgardaghica — NILSON et al. 1988
Vipera bulgardaghica — SCHMIDTLER et al. 1990
Daboia xanthina — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Vipera bulgardaghica — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera xanthina — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera (Montivipera) xanthina — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera bulgardaghica — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Vipera xanthina — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 412
Montivipera xanthina — NILSON et al. 1999
Montivipera xanthina — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Montivipera xanthina — STÜMPEL & TRAPP 2006
Vipera (Montivipera) xanthina — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Montivipera xanthina — TRAPP 2007
Daboia xanthina — GAULKE 2008
Montivipera xanthina — ARIKAN et al. 2008 
DistributionW Turkey,
Greece (NE Makri, Lesbos, Chios, Samos, Patmos, Lipsi, Leros, Kalymnos, Symi, Chalki),
Syria
Elevation up to 3000 m.

bulgardaghica: SC Turkey; TT: Kar Boghaz, Bulgar Dag (= Bolkar Dagi), “Cilicischer Taurus” (Prov. Nigde).; paratype: NMW

Type locality: Xanthus, SW Turkey Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes (2): BMNH 1946.1.18.11 (formerly BMNH ii.1.3a, Xanthos) and BMNH 1946.1.20.93 (Asia Minor). Lectotype: BMNH 1946.1.18.11, as designated by Nilson and Andren, 1986, Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 20:1- 90[63]. 
CommentVenomous! Vipera bulgardaghica NILSON & ANDREN 1985 is a synonym of Vipera xanthina (JOGER, pers. comm.), but considered as a valid species by DAVID & INEICH 1999. However, GARRIGUES et al. (2005) found that V. bulgardaghica appears to be more closely related to V. albizona and thus a member of the Montivipera clade.

Vipera bornmuelleri has been considered as a subspecies of V. xanthina but is now considered as a valid species.

Total length up to 182 cm, but usually less than 100 cm.

Reproduction: (ovo-) viparous. 
EtymologyEtymology: named after its type locality. 
References
  • Arıkan, H., Göçmen, B., Kumlutaş, Y., Alpagut-Keskin, N., Ilgaz, Ç & Yıldız, M.Z. 2008. Electrophoretic characterisation of the venom samples obtained from various Anatolian snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae, Viperidae, Elapidae). North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 16-28 - get paper here
  • Arıkan, Hüseyin; Yusuf Kumlutas, Öguz Türkozan, Ibrahim Baran, Çetin Ilgaz 2004. The morphology and size of blood cells of some viperid snakes from Turkey. Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (4): 465-470 - get paper here
  • Bettex,F. 1993. Beobachtungen an Vipera bulgardaghia, Vipera albizona und Vipera xanthina im Freiland und im Terrarium. Herpetofauna 15 (86): 21-26 - get paper here
  • BODSON, Liliane 2009. L’interprétation des noms grecs et latins d’animaux illustrée par le cas du zoonyme seps-seps. Académie Royale de Belgique, Bruxelles, 368 pp.
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Clark, Richard 2000. Herpetological notes on the islands of Lipsi and Agathonisi, Dodecanse, Greece. Herpetological Bulletin (74):6-7.
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  • Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. 1988. Die Vipern der Türkei. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247.
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