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Mussurana bicolor (PERACCA, 1904)

IUCN Red List - Mussurana bicolor - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Two-colored Mussurana
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Coral, Falsa-Coral, Muçurana, Muçurana-Bicolor 
SynonymOxyrhopus bicolor PERACCA 1904: 667
Clelia bicolor — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Clelia bicolor — CEI 1993
Clelia bicolor — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 16
Clelia bicolor — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 80
Mussurana bicolor — ZAHER et al. 2009
Clelia bicolor — CANO et al. 2015
Mussurana bicolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 462
Mussurana bicolor — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, Argentina (Santa Fe, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Misiones [HR 30: 174]), Peru, Bolivia

Type locality: north of Santa Fé, Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
TypesHolotype: MHNG 677.47 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Presence of ontogenetic changes in color pattern; juveniles with a brick red color, a black longitudinal vertebral band, and an uniformly creamish venter. Adults with dorsum entirely black; Hemipenis with a unique row of larger papillae on the internal face of the lobes; postero‐ventral tip of the nasal gland longer than wide; dorsal wall of Duvernoy gland reduced along all its dorsal surface (Zaher, 1994b; 1999). 
CommentType species: Oxyrhopus bicolor PERACCA 1904 is the type species of the genus Mussurana ZAHER et al. 2009. 
EtymologyPresumably named after the two color shades in the species, from Latin bi = two, and color. However, “bicolor” may refer to light and dark patches, the dorsal and ventral color, or the dark dorsal head coloration and the lighter supralabials. 
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • CARVALHO SILVA, VINICIUS & RODNEY MURILLO PEIXOTO COUTO. 2021. MUSSURANA BICOLOR (Mussurana). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 165. - get paper here
  • DI BERNARDO, Marcos ; BORGES-MARTINS, M.; OLIVEIRA, Roberto Baptista de 2004. Proposed deletion of eight species of snakes from the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul herpetofauna. Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS. Série Zoologia, Porto Alegre, v. 17, n.1, p. 45-50.
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. & Lara, J. 2002. Die Schlangenfauna von Pozuzo (Peru) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 353-359 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Franco, F.L. & Sanches, E.J. 2003. Uma nova espécie de Clelia (Serpentes, Colubridae) do sul do Brasil. Phyllomedusa 2 (2): 93-100 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peracca, M. G. 1904. Nouvelles espèces d’Ophidiens d’Asie et d’Amerique, faisant partie de la collection du Museum d’histoire naturelle de Genève. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 12: 663-668 - get paper here
  • Rivas LR, Callapa G, Eversole CB, Powell RL, Wallace RL 2023. Mussurana bicolor (Peracca, 1904) (Squamata, Colubridae): additional country records and first list of voucher specimens from Bolivia. Check List 19(1): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Santana, Diego José 2019. Predation of Mussurana bicolor (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) upon Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 281-282 - get paper here
  • Scott, N.J.; Giraudo, A.R.; Scrocchi, G.; Aquino, A.L.; Cacciali, P. & Motte, M. 2006. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (Serpentes: Pseudoboini) in Paraguay and Argentina. Pap. Avuls. Zool. 46 (9): 77-105 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi ,G. and Vinas, M. 1990. El género Clelia (Serpentes: Colubridae) en la República Argentina: Revisión y comentários. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 8: 487-499
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
  • Zaher, H. 1996. A new genus and species of pseudoboine snake, with a revision of the genus Clelia (Serpentes, Xenodontinae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 14: 289-337. - get paper here
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