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Mussurana bicolor (PERACCA, 1904)

IUCN Red List - Mussurana bicolor - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Two-colored Mussurana
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Coral, Falsa-Coral, Muçurana, Muçurana-Bicolor 
SynonymOxyrhopus bicolor PERACCA 1904: 667
Clelia bicolor — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Clelia bicolor — CEI 1993
Clelia bicolor — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 16
Clelia bicolor — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 80
Mussurana bicolor — ZAHER et al. 2009
Clelia bicolor — CANO et al. 2015
Mussurana bicolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 462
Mussurana bicolor — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, Argentina (Santa Fe, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Misiones [HR 30: 174]), Peru

Type locality: north of Santa Fé, Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
TypesHolotype: MHNG 677.47 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Mussurana): Presence of ontogenetic changes in color pattern; juveniles with a brick red color, a black lon‐ gitudinal vertebral band, and an uniformly creamish venter. Adults with dorsum entirely black; Hemipenis with a unique row of larger papillae on the internal face of the lobes; postero‐ventral tip of the nasal gland lon‐ ger than wide; dorsal wall of Duvernoy gland reduced along all its dorsal surface (Zaher, 1994b; 1999).

Diagnosis – Mussurana (Clelia) bicolor in the study area can be distinguished from all other Boiruna and Clelia by the low number of ventral scales (163-187; Appendix 4, Fig. 4). Its gray or brown dorsum is never as dark as that of C. clelia, C. plumbea, and Boiruna. Except for the lateral tips of the ventrals, the venter of C. bicolor is always clear ivory. In C. bicolor of all sizes, the border between the dark dorsal head coloration and the lighter supralabials is sharp and distinct at the dorsal edge of the supralabial row (photographs in Cei, 1993; Giraudo, 2002). The general coloration of C. bicolor is similar to that of C. quimi; however, the color transition on the side of the head is more gradual in C. quimi, and the dark dorsal color extends further onto the supralabials (see illustration in Franco et al., 1997). Clelia bicolor is the smallest species (maximum total length 990 mm; Fig. 3). Clelia bicolor and C. quimi generally have 8 supralabials on each side; the other Clelia and Boiruna generally have 7 (Appendix 1). A dark dorsal stripe is seen in hatchling C. bicolor, C. quimi, and B. maculata. A white nape band may be distinct in hatchlings or almost lacking [diagnosis based on Clelia] 
CommentType species: Oxyrhopus bicolor PERACCA 1904 is the type species of the genus Mussurana ZAHER et al. 2009. 
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • CARVALHO SILVA, VINICIUS & RODNEY MURILLO PEIXOTO COUTO. 2021. MUSSURANA BICOLOR (Mussurana). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 165. - get paper here
  • DI BERNARDO, Marcos ; BORGES-MARTINS, M.; OLIVEIRA, Roberto Baptista de 2004. Proposed deletion of eight species of snakes from the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul herpetofauna. Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS. Série Zoologia, Porto Alegre, v. 17, n.1, p. 45-50.
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. & Lara, J. 2002. Die Schlangenfauna von Pozuzo (Peru) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 353-359 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Franco, F.L. & Sanches, E.J. 2003. Uma nova espécie de Clelia (Serpentes, Colubridae) do sul do Brasil. Phyllomedusa 2 (2): 93-100 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peracca, M. G. 1904. Nouvelles espèces d’Ophidiens d’Asie et d’Amerique, faisant partie de la collection du Museum d’histoire naturelle de Genève. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 12: 663-668 - get paper here
  • Santana, Diego José 2019. Predation of Mussurana bicolor (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) upon Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 281-282 - get paper here
  • Scott, N.J.; Giraudo, A.R.; Scrocchi, G.; Aquino, A.L.; Cacciali, P. & Motte, M. 2006. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (Serpentes: Pseudoboini) in Paraguay and Argentina. Pap. Avuls. Zool. 46 (9): 77-105 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi ,G. and Vinas, M. 1990. El género Clelia (Serpentes: Colubridae) en la República Argentina: Revisión y comentários. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 8: 487-499
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
  • Zaher, H. 1996. A new genus and species of pseudoboine snake, with a revision of the genus Clelia (Serpentes, Xenodontinae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 14: 289-337.
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