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Naja atra CANTOR, 1842

IUCN Red List - Naja atra - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Chinese Cobra
G: Chinesische Kobra
Chinese: 舟山眼镜蛇 
SynonymNaja atra CANTOR 1842
Naja tripudians var. scopinucha COPE 1859: 343
Naja tripudians var. unicolor VON MARTENS 1876
Naia tripudians var. fasciata BOULENGER 1896: 383 (part.)
Naja naja atra — STEJNEGER 1907: 394
Naja kaouthia atra — DERANIYAGALA 1960
Naja naja atra — GOLAY 1985: 45
Naja sputatrix atra — LINGENHOLE & TRUTNAU 1989
Naja atra — ZIEGLER 2002: 275
Naja (Naja) atra — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja atra — WALLACH et al. 2014: 460 
DistributionSE China, N Vietnam (Hoa Binh), N Laos, Taiwan

Type locality: Chusan (= Zhoushan), China.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: nondesignated (T.E. Cantor, July 1840– March 1841), lost fide Golay et al. (1993: 185). (status unclear fide P. Campbell, pers. comm., March 2019).
Holotype: ANSP 6988 [scopinucha] 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy partly after STEJNEGER 1907. 
EtymologyNamed after its color, Latin “ater, atra, atrum” = dark or black. 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor,T. 1842. General features of Chusan, with remarks on the flora and fauna of that island [part 3]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 9: 481-493 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Jiang Y, Li Y, Lee W, Xu X, Zhang Y, Zhao R, Zhang Y, Wang W 2011. Venom gland transcriptomes of two Elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) and evolution of toxin genes. BMC Genomics 2011, 12:1 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Lin, Hua-Ching; Shou-Hsien Li; Jonathan Fong; Si-Min Lin 2008. Ventral coloration differentiation and mitochondrial sequences of the Chinese Cobra (Naja atra) in Taiwan. Conservation Genetics 9:1089–1097
  • Luu, V. Q., Dinh, T. S., Lo, O. V., Nguyen, T. Q. and Ziegler, T. 2020. New records and an updated list of reptiles from Ba Vi National Park, Vietnam. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 69: 1-9.
  • Martens, E. von 1876. Die Preussische Expedition nach Ostasien. Zoologischer Teil. Berlin: Decker Vol. 1: 412 pp.
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang; Tan Van Nguyen, Cuong The Pham, An Vinh Ong & Thomas Ziegler 2018. New records of snakes (Squamata: Serpentes) from Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 67 (1): 15–24 - get paper here
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Kleine gifslangengalerij. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 47-57 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Die Giftschlangen Südchinas. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 30-36 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Venomous snakes in Southern China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 22-29 - get paper here
  • PATERNA, ALESSANDRO 2019. Spitting behaviour in the Chinese cobra Naja atra. Herpetological Bulletin 147: - get paper here
  • Pham AV, Ziegler T, Nguyen TQ 2020. New records and an updated checklist of snakes from Son La Province, Vietnam. Biodiversity Data Journal 8: e52779 - get paper here
  • Post, Yorick;, Jens Puschhof,, Joep Beumer,, Harald M. Kerkkamp, Merijn A.G. de Bakker,<br />Julien Slagboom, Buys de Barbanson, Nienke R. Wevers, Xandor M. Spijkers, Thomas Olivier,<br />Taline D. Kazandjian, Stuart Ainsworth, Carmen Lopez Iglesias, 2020. Snake Venom Gland Organoids. Cell 180, 233–247 - get paper here
  • Rosén, N. 1904. Über die Kaumuskeln der Schlangen und ihre Bedeutung bei der Entleerung der Giftdrüse. Zool. Anz. 28: 1-7 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • WANG, Zheng; Longhui LIN; Xiang JI 2014. Unhatched and Hatched Eggshells of the Chinese Cobra Naja atra. Asian Herpetological Research 5 (4): 276-280 doi 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2014.00276 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W.; Thorpe,R.S.; Cox,M.J.; Jintakune,P.; Nabhitabhata,J. 1995. Populuation systematics of the snake genus Naja (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae) in Indochina: Multivariate morphometrics and comparative mitochondrial DNA sequencing (cytochrome oxidase I). J. Evol. Biol. 8: 493-510
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1993. A century of confusion: Asiatic cobras revisited. Vivarium 4 (4): 14-18
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
 
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