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Naja multifasciata (WERNER, 1902)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesNaja multifasciata anomala STERNFELD 1917
Naja multifasciata duttoni (BOULENGER 1904)
Naja multifasciata multifasciata (WERNER 1902) 
Common NamesE: Many-banded Snake 
SynonymNaia multifasciata WERNER 1902: 347
Paranaja multifasciata — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Paranaja multifasciata — WELCH 1994: 97
Paranaja multifasciata — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Naja multifasciata — WÜSTER et al. 2007
Paranaja multifasciata — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Paranaja multifasciata — PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008
Naja (Boulengerina) multifasciata — WALLACH et al. 2009
Boulengerina multifasciata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 121

Paranaja multifasciata anomala STERNFELD 1917
Naja anomala STERNFELD 1917: 482
Naia anomala — WERNER 1924: 45
Paranaja multifasciata anomala — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1990
Paranaja multifasciata — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 44

Naja multifasciata duttoni (BOULENGER 1904)
Elapechis Duttoni BOULENGER 1904: 15
Paranaja multifasciata duttoni — GOLAY et al. 1993: 198 
DistributionW/C Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Equatorial Guinea

anomala: Cameroon.

Type locality: "der oberen Maringa, Congo." [=upper Moringa or Tshuapa River, southeastern Équateur Province, northwestern Zaire, 0˚14'S, 20˚42'E fide Lang, 1990: 25].  
TypesHolotype: IRSNB 2015, a 525-550 mm male (Rom, 16 Jan. 1894).
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.20.62, collected by Dr. Dutton (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Exped.) [duttoni]
Holotype: SMF 20662, collected by A. Schultze in 1911 [anomala] 

P. m. duttoni is not listed in WELCH 1994.

Synonymy: Paranaja multifasciata is nested within Naja in a tree based on DNA sequence data and thus WÜSTER et al. suggested to synonymize it with Naja.

Distribution: For a map with localities in Equatorial Guinea see SÁNCHEZ-VIALAS et al. 2022. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1904. Descriptions of two new Elapine snakes from the Congo. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 14: 14 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chippaux, Jean-Philippe & Kate Jackson 2019. Snakes of Central and Western Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press, 448 pp. [detaileld review in HR 51 (1): 161] - get paper here
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1983. African snake faunas. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 34: 311-356 - get paper here
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande Weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • SÁNCHEZ-VIALAS, A., CALVO-REVUELTA, M. & DE LA RIVA, I. 2022. Synopsis of the terrestrial Reptiles of Equatorial Guinea. Zootaxa 5202 (1): 1-197 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S., Branch, B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Sternfeld, R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1990. Note sur une collection de serpents du Congo avec description d'une espèce nouvelle. Rev. Zool. Afr. (J. Afr. Zool.) 104: 375-383
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1902. Über westafrikanische Reptilien. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 52: 332-348
  • Werner, F. 1924. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. l. Teil. Sitzungsb. Ber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 133: 29 - 56 - get paper here
  • Wüster, Wolfgang; Steven Crookes, Ivan Ineich, Youssouph Mané, Catharine E. Pook, Jean-Francois Trape, Donald G. Broadley 2007. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: Evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 437–453 - get paper here
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