Naja naja (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Naja naja?
|Higher Taxa||Elapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Common Names||E: Indian Cobra|
G: Kobra, Brillenschlange
|Synonym||Coluber Naja LINNAEUS 1758: 221|
Naja brasiliensis LAURENTI 1768
Naja fasciata LAURENTI 1768
Naja lutescens LAURENTI 1768
Naja maculata LAURENTI 1768
Naja non-naja LAURENTI 1768
Coluber caecus GMELIN 1788
Coluber rufus GMELIN 1788
Coluber Naja — SHAW & NODDER 1791: plate 74
Coluber Naja — SHAW & NODDER 1794: plate 181
Naja tripudians MERREM 1820
Naja nigra GRAY 1830
Naja tripudians forma typica BOULENGER 1896
Naja tripudians var. caeca BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Naja naja — STEJNEGER 1907
Naja naja naja — SMITH 1943
Naja naja gangetica DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja lutescens DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja madrasiensis DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja indusi DERANIYAGALA 1960
Naja naja bombaya DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja naja karachiensis DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja naja ceylonicus CHATMAN & DI MARI 1974
Naja naja polyocellata MEHRTENS 1987
Naja ceylonicus Osorio E CASTRO & VERNON 1989
Naja (Naja) naja — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja naja karachiensis — ZEEB 2012
Naja naja karachiensis — LAITA 2013
Naja naja — WALLACH et al. 2014: 461
|Distribution||Pakistan, India (throughout most of the country, incl. Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, [Dino Aulakh, pers. comm.], Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat), Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, E Afghanistan (?)|
Type locality: “India orientali” Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Types||Lectotype: NHR Lin-90 (formerly MAFR), designated by Wallach et al. 2014: 470.|
Type: BMNH 19126.96.36.199 (and probably additional specimens).
|Comment||Venomous! This is one of four common venomous snakes of medical importance in India. The others are Echis carinatus, Bungarus caeruleus, and Daboia russeli.|
Subspecies: All Asiatic Naja used to be regarded as subspecies of Naja naja.
Type species: Naja lutescens LAURENTI 1768 is the type species of the genus Naja LAURENTI 1768 as well as the type species of the subgenus Naja LAURENTI 1768.
Diagnosis (subgenus Naja): Extracranial (ventral) anterior Vidian canal position, 0–1 solid maxillary teeth in all species (Wüster, 1990—only 6 out of 650 specimens examined in that study had 2 solid maxillary teeth), seven supralabials with penultimate (sixth) shield low, combination of single preocular and two (occasionally three) anterior temporals, rostral broader than deep; internasals shorter than prefrontals; fang structure variable, all species except N. naja and N. oxiana have some degree of adaptation to spitting (Wüster & Thorpe, 1992b). We tentatively include the extinct †Naja (Naja) romani (Hofstetter, 1939) in this subgenus based on the shared derived condition of the basisphenoid morphology and the vestibular window, despite the possession of two solid maxillary teeth (Szyndlar & Rage, 1990).
DIAGNOSIS (species): The Indian spectacled cobra is sympatric with two other cobra species: the Centra1 Asian cobra, Naja oxiana, occurs sympatrica1ly in the northern half of Pakistan and probably extreme northern India, and the monocellate cobra, N. kaouthia, occurs sympatrically in northern India (from Delhi eastward). The characters that allow N. naja to be distinguished from N. oxiana in the zone of sympatry are shown in Table 3 (in WÜSTER 1998), and those used to discriminate between N. naja and N. kaouthia are Iisted in his Table 4. The distinction between Naja naja and N. oxiana has often proved problematic, many
authors assigning all specimens without a hood mark to N. oxiana. In particular, it should be noted that the black cobras found in parts of north-western India, Pakistan, south-western Nepal and some other areas are not N. oxiana, which
is norrnally some shade of brown, but, to my knowledge, never black Distinguishing Naja kaouthia and N. sagittifera from N. naja is usually straightforward due to the difference in hood mark shape and throat pattern, and, in the case of the latter, geographic distribution.
|Etymology||Etymology (Naja): derived from the Sinhala Naya, cobra.|
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