You are here » home advanced search search results Naja naja

Naja naja (LINNAEUS, 1758)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Naja naja?

Add your own observation of
Naja naja »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Indian Cobra
G: Kobra, Brillenschlange 
SynonymColuber Naja LINNAEUS 1758: 221
Naja brasiliensis LAURENTI 1768
Naja fasciata LAURENTI 1768
Naja lutescens LAURENTI 1768
Naja maculata LAURENTI 1768
Naja non-naja LAURENTI 1768
Coluber caecus GMELIN 1788
Coluber rufus GMELIN 1788
Coluber Naja — SHAW & NODDER 1791: plate 74
Coluber Naja — SHAW & NODDER 1794: plate 181
Naja tripudians MERREM 1820
Naja nigra GRAY 1830
Naja tripudians forma typica BOULENGER 1896
Naja tripudians var. caeca BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Naja naja — STEJNEGER 1907
Naja naja naja — SMITH 1943
Naja naja gangetica DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja lutescens DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja madrasiensis DERANIYAGALA 1945
Naja naja indusi DERANIYAGALA 1960
Naja naja bombaya DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja naja karachiensis DERANIYAGALA 1961
Naja naja ceylonicus CHATMAN & DI MARI 1974
Naja naja polyocellata MEHRTENS 1987
Naja ceylonicus Osorio E CASTRO & VERNON 1989
Naja (Naja) naja — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja naja karachiensis — ZEEB 2012
Naja naja karachiensis — LAITA 2013
Naja naja — WALLACH et al. 2014: 461 
DistributionPakistan, India (throughout most of the country, incl. Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, [Dino Aulakh, pers. comm.], Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat), Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, E Afghanistan (?)

Type locality: “India orientali” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: NHR Lin-90 (formerly MAFR), designated by Wallach et al. 2014: 470.
Type: BMNH 1946.1.18.50 (and probably additional specimens). 
CommentVenomous! This is one of four common venomous snakes of medical importance in India. The others are Echis carinatus, Bungarus caeruleus, and Daboia russeli.

Subspecies: All Asiatic Naja used to be regarded as subspecies of Naja naja.

Type species: Naja lutescens LAURENTI 1768 is the type species of the genus Naja LAURENTI 1768 as well as the type species of the subgenus Naja LAURENTI 1768.

Diagnosis (subgenus Naja): Extracranial (ventral) anterior Vidian canal position, 0–1 solid maxillary teeth in all species (Wüster, 1990—only 6 out of 650 specimens examined in that study had 2 solid maxillary teeth), seven supralabials with penultimate (sixth) shield low, combination of single preocular and two (occasionally three) anterior temporals, rostral broader than deep; internasals shorter than prefrontals; fang structure variable, all species except N. naja and N. oxiana have some degree of adaptation to spitting (Wüster & Thorpe, 1992b). We tentatively include the extinct †Naja (Naja) romani (Hofstetter, 1939) in this subgenus based on the shared derived condition of the basisphenoid morphology and the vestibular window, despite the possession of two solid maxillary teeth (Szyndlar & Rage, 1990).

DIAGNOSIS (species): The Indian spectacled cobra is sympatric with two other cobra species: the Centra1 Asian cobra, Naja oxiana, occurs sympatrica1ly in the northern half of Pakistan and probably extreme northern India, and the monocellate cobra, N. kaouthia, occurs sympatrically in northern India (from Delhi eastward). The characters that allow N. naja to be distinguished from N. oxiana in the zone of sympatry are shown in Table 3 (in WÜSTER 1998), and those used to discriminate between N. naja and N. kaouthia are Iisted in his Table 4. The distinction between Naja naja and N. oxiana has often proved problematic, many

authors assigning all specimens without a hood mark to N. oxiana. In particular, it should be noted that the black cobras found in parts of north-western India, Pakistan, south-western Nepal and some other areas are not N. oxiana, which

is norrnally some shade of brown, but, to my knowledge, never black Distinguishing Naja kaouthia and N. sagittifera from N. naja is usually straightforward due to the difference in hood mark shape and throat pattern, and, in the case of the latter, geographic distribution. 
EtymologyEtymology (Naja): derived from the Sinhala Naya, cobra. 
References
  • Baig, KJ, Masroor, R., and Arshad, M. 2008. Biodiversity and ecology of the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 15 (3): 193-205 - get paper here
  • Bannerman, W.B. & Pocha, J.P. 1905. On the Distribution of the Varieties of Cobra (Naia tripudians) in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 638-643 - get paper here
  • Bannermann, W.B. 1907. A further note on the distribution of the varieties of Cobra in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 1031-1033 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1958. Snakes of Southern Rhodesia. 6. The Egyptian cobra (Naja haje haje). Afr. Wild Life 12: 125-128.
  • CASTOE, Todd A.; ERIC N. SMITH, RAFE M. BROWN and CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2007. Higher-level phylogeny of Asian and American coralsnakes, their placement within the Elapidae (Squamata), and the systematic affinities of the enigmatic Asian coralsnake Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann, 1834). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151, 809–831 - get paper here
  • Damm, M. 1996. Naja naja (LINNAEUS, 1758). Sauria 18 Suppl.: 361–364 - get paper here
  • Das,I. & Palden,J. 2000. A herpetological collection from Bhutan, with new country records. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 256-258 - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Einfalt, P. 2012. Die Brillenschlange, Naja naja. Natur und Tier Verlag, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Ganesh, S. R.; M. Arumugam 2016. Species Richness of Montane Herpetofauna of Southern Eastern Ghats, India: A Historical Resume and a Descriptive Checklist Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (1): 7-24
  • Jaureguy F, Landreau L, Passet V, Diancourt L, Frapy E, Guigon G, Carbonnelle E, Lortholary O, Clermont O, Denamur E, Picard B, Nassif X, Brisse S 2008. Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genome in Snakes: Gene Rearrangements and Phylogenetic Relationships. BMC Genomics 9:560
  • Jayaneththi, Hareschandra Bandula 2015. Vertebrate fauna of Morankanda-Mukalana secondary forest patch in Sri Lanka: A checklist reported from 2004-2008 survey. RUHUNA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 6: 21- 41
  • Joseph, P.; Mathew, J.P.; Thomas, V.C. 2005. Morphological variables and osteology of vertebrae and ribs in Natrix piscator (Schneider), Naja naja (Linn.) and Eryx johnii. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 25 (2): 183-194
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan; D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (02): 69-76
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2002. Die Schlangen Pakistans [English edition as “A Guide to the snakes of Pakistan”]. Edition Chimaira (Frankfurt am Main), 265 pp. [review in HR 34: 400, Russ J Herp 12: 79] - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Love, B. 2014. Ein ganz anderes Terrarianertreffen. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (109): 14-15
  • Luard, C.E. 1918. The Varieties of Cobras in Central India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 25: 510 - get paper here
  • Masroor, R. 2012. A Contribution to the Herpetology of Northern Pakistan. SSAR, Ithaca [review in JoTT 4(6): 2670] - get paper here
  • Mirza, Zeeshan A.; Kunal K. Ullalkar &<br />Gavin Q. Desouza 2007. Note on the predation of Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) by Spectacled Cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758). Reptile Rap (8): 9-10 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Nath, Anukul; Hilloljyoti Singha & Abhijit Das 2011. Snakes of Bongaigaon Municipality Area, Assam, India. Reptile Rap (13): 9-13 - get paper here
  • Nath, I.; S.K. Panda, Abhijit Rath, Parthasarathi Behera & Nilamadhab Mohanty 2010. Rectal Prolapse in an Indian Cobra (Naja naja). Reptile Rap (9): 15-16 - get paper here
  • Palot, M.J. 2015. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 8010–8022 - get paper here
  • Sclater,W.L. 1891. Notes on a collection of snakes in the Indian Museum, with descriptions of several new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal LX: 230-250 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Shaw, George & Nodder, Frederick P. (Eds.) 1791. The Naturalist’s Miscellany [...], Vol. II. London, Nodder & Co., plates 38- 74, 157 unnumbered pages [published in monthly issues between August 1, 1790, and July 1, 1791] - get paper here
  • Shaw, George & Nodder, Frederick P. (Eds.) 1794. The Naturalist's Miscellany [...], Vol. V. London, Nodder & Co., plates 147-182, 158 unnumbered pages [published in monthly issues between between August 1, 1793, and July 1, 1794] - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B. and Wolfgang Wüster. 2000. A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica 56 (2): 257-270 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Soud, Rakesh, Sanjoy Sutradhar, B. C. Roy and Simi Talukdar 2006. Extended distribution of the Spectacled Cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758) (Family: Elapidae) in Western Assam, India. Cobra 64:13.
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Thakur, Sanjay 2011. A note on snakes of Kanha National Park and surrounding areas. Reptile Rap (11): 2-4 - get paper here
  • Tsetan, Chime & R. Ramanibai 2011. Reptilian fauna of agricultural landscapes of Chembarambakkam Lake, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Reptile Rap (13): 2-8 - get paper here
  • Tweedie, M.W.F. 1954. Notes on Malayan reptiles, No.3. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 25: 107-117
  • Upadhye, Madhav V.; Vinayak V. Puranik, Prasad Dabholkar & Ujwala Jadhav 2012. Herpetofauna of the Vidyanagari campus of the University of Mumbai, Maharashtra. Reptile Rap (14): 15-20 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Herptofauna of Puma Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap (8): 10-15 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2011. Reptilian diversity in and around the Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap (11): 5-15 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2013. Snake diversity and voluntary rescue practice in the cities of Gujarat State, India: an evaluation. Reptile Rap (15): 27-39 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju; B.M. Parasharya &<br />J.J. Jani 2012. Herpetofaunal diversity in and around the selected man-made wetlands of central and northern Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap (14): 21–26 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1913. A popular treatise on the common Indian snakes (part 3). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 550-568 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W.;Thorpe, R.S. 1992. Asiatic cobras: population systematics of the Naja naja species complex (Serpentes: Elapidae) in India and Central Asia. Herpetologica 48: 69-85. - get paper here
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1993. A century of confusion: Asiatic cobras revisited. Vivarium 4 (4): 14-18
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1998. The cobras of the genus Naja in India. Hamadryad 23 (1): 15-32 - get paper here
  • Wüster,W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1991. Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite. Experientia 47: 205-209
  • Yan, J.; Li, H. & Zhou, K. 2008. Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genome in Snakes:Gene Rearrangements and Phylogenetic Relationships. BMC Genomics 2008, 9:569 - get paper here
  • Zeeb, Sven 2012. Die Wirkung von Schlangengiften auf die Blutgerinnung und ihre Nutzung in der medizinischen Therapie und Diagnostik. Draco 13 (51): 58-66 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Naja&species=naja

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.



Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator