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Naja nivea (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Cape Cobra
G: Kap-Kobra
woodi: Black Spitting Cobra 
SynonymColuber niveus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Vipera (Echidna) flava MERREM 1820
Naja nivea BOIE 1827
Naja gutturalis SMITH 1838: 92
Naja intermixta DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1298
Naja haje var. capensis JAN 1863: 119
Naia flava BOULENGER 1887
Naja flava STERNFELD 1910
Naja nivea — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Naja nivea — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Naja nivea — AUERBACH 1987: 197
Naja nivea — WELCH 1994: 93
Naja (Uraeus) nivea — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja niveus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 763 
DistributionC/S Namibia, SW Botswana, W Republic of South Africa, Lesotho

Type locality: “Africa” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 91 
CommentVenomous!

Variation: According to FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958 found in 3 color forms: uniform honey yellow, reddish-brown mottled, uniform yellow to reddish-brown.

Diet: Feeds mainly on small rodents, but will also take frogs and toads and small birds.

Synonymy partly after BROADLEY & WÜSTER 2004.

Reproduction: oviparous. 
References
  • Auerbach,R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Branch, W. R. 1998. Naja nivea Cape Cobra. Size. African Herp News (27): 17-18
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1968. A review of the African cobras of the genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapinae). Arnoldia (Rhodesia) (ser. 3) 29: 1-14
  • BROADLEY, D.G. & W. WÜSTER 2004. A review of the southern African ‘non-spitting’ cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja). African Journal of Herpetology 53 (2):101-122 - get paper here
  • Cimatti, E. 2007. Namibia - Introduction to a vast territory. Reptilia (GB) (50): 58-67 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • GOLDBERG, S.R. 2009. Naja nivea (Linneaus, 1758) Reproduction. Afr. Herp News (50): 28
  • GOLDBERG, S.R. & BURSEY, C.R. 2009. Naja nivea (Linneaus, 1758) Endoparasites. Afr. Herp News (50): 29-30
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Phelps, Tony. 2007. Observations of the Cape cobra, Naja nivea (Serpentes: Elapidae) in the DeHoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Herpetological Bulletin 99: 29-35
  • Phelps, Tony. 2007. Naja nivea Maximum size. African Herp News (42): 22-23
  • Smith, A. 1838. Contributions to the Natural History of Southern Africa. Art. VIII. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 2 (14): 92-94
  • Spawls, S., Branch,B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Trutnau, L. 1984. Erfahrungen bei der Pflege und Nachzucht von zwei afrikanischen Naja-Arten: der Schwarzweißen Hutschlange Naja melanoleuca HALLOWELL 1857 und der Kapkobra Naja nivea (LINNAEUS 1758). Herpetofauna 6 (31): 15-26 - get paper here
  • VISSER, J. 2012. Naja nivea Linaeus, 1758. African Herp News (56): 32-33
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
  • WITBERG, M. 2011. Naja nivea (Linnaeus, 1758) Juvenile colouration. Afr. Herp News (53): 46-47
  • Witberg, Marcel. 2007. Naja nivea Juvenile markings. African Herp News (42): 21-22
 
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