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Naja oxiana (EICHWALD, 1831)

IUCN Red List - Naja oxiana - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Central Asian Cobra
G: Mittelasiatische Kobra 
SynonymTomyris oxiana EICHWALD 1831: 171
Naja oxiana — STRAUCH 1868: 284
Naja tripudians var. caeca BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Naja naja oxiana — STEJNEGER 1907
Naja naja oxiana — SMITH 1943: 428
Naja naja oxiana — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Naja oxiana — WELCH 1994: 93
Naja naja oxiana — SHARMA 2004
Naja (Naja) oxiana — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja oxiana — WALLACH et al. 2014: 462 
DistributionAfghanistan, NE Iran, NW India, Pakistan,
Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, SW Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

Type locality: Transcaspia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: a 762 mm specimen, present location unknown. 

DIAGNOSIS: The only cobra species which occurs sympatrically with Naja oxiana is the Indian spectacled cobra, N. naja. The differences between the two taxa are shown in Table 2 (in WÜSTER 1998). Naja oxiana can be distinguished from all other Asiatic cobras on the basis of its high ventral andlor subcaudal scale counts. Specimens of the monocellate cobra (N. kaouthia) with exceptionally high ventral and subcaudal scale counts may be distinguished from N. oxiana by the possession of a hood mark, a distinct throat pattern with lateral spots, and a higher number of dorsal scale rows at the level of the 10th ventral. 
  • Eichwald, E. 1831. Zoologia specialis, quam expositis animalibus tum vivis, tum fossilibus potissimuni rossiae in universum, et poloniae in specie, in usum lectionum publicarum in Universitate Caesarea Vilnensi. Zawadski, Vilnae. - get paper here
  • Joisten, F. 2013. Amphibien und Reptilien in Nord-Afghanistan. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (103): 86-93 - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2002. Die Schlangen Pakistans [English edition as “A Guide to the snakes of Pakistan”]. Edition Chimaira (Frankfurt am Main), 265 pp. [review in HR 34: 400, Russ J Herp 12: 79] - get paper here
  • Masroor, R. 2012. A Contribution to the Herpetology of Northern Pakistan. SSAR, Ithaca [review in JoTT 4(6): 2670] - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Schmidt, D. 2004. Zur Reproduktion von Schlangen im Terrarium: Aufgaben - Fakten - Probleme. Draco 5 (17): 22-36 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Slowinski, Joseph B. and Wolfgang Wüster. 2000. A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica 56 (2): 257-270 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Strauch, A. 1868. Concerning poisonous snakes distributed in Russia. [in Russian]. Trudy Perv. Siezda Russ. Yestestv. Zool., 1: 294 (also cited as Trans. First Conf. Russ. Nat., St.Petersburg, 1: 271-297)
  • Trutnau, L. 1996. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie, Pflege und Nachzucht der Mittelasiatischen Kobra Naja oxiana (Eichwald, 1831). Herpetofauna 18 (100): 06-10 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W.;Thorpe, R.S. 1992. Asiatic cobras: population systematics of the Naja naja species complex (Serpentes: Elapidae) in India and Central Asia. Herpetologica 48: 69-85. - get paper here
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1993. A century of confusion: Asiatic cobras revisited. Vivarium 4 (4): 14-18
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1998. The cobras of the genus Naja in India. Hamadryad 23 (1): 15-32 - get paper here
  • Wüster,W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1991. Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite. Experientia 47: 205-209
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