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Naja peroescobari CERÍACO, MARQUES, SCHMITZ & BAUER, 2017

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-preta
E: São Tomé cobra 
SynonymNaja (Boulengerina) peroescobari CERÍACO, MARQUES, SCHMITZ & BAUER 2017
Naja haje var. nigra — BOCAGE 1866: 51
Naja haje var. nigra — BOCAGE 1879: 87Naja haje — GREEF 1884: 47
Naja haje — BOCAGE 1886: 69
Naja haje — BOCAGE 1895: 24
Naja haje var. nigra — VIEIRA 1886: 237
Naja haje var. nigra — BOCAGE 1889: 34
Naia melanoleuca — FERREIRA 1902: 133
Naja melanoleuca — BOCAGE 1905: 94
Naia melanoleuca — BOULENGER 1906: 215
Naja melanoleuca — THEMIDO 1941: 6
Naja melanoleuca melanoleuca — MANAÇAS 1958: 190
Naja melanoleuca melanoleuca — CAPOCACCIA 1961: 299
Naja melanoleuca — MANAÇAS 1973: 228
Naja haje var. melanoleuca — BEDRIAGA 1982: 299, 440
Naja melanoleuca — SCHÄTTI & LOUMONT 1992: 31
Naja melanoleuca — NILL 1993: 71;
Naja melanoleuca — HOFER 2002: 78, 89 
DistributionSão Tomé Island

Type locality: vicinity of Praia Inhame (0.028636° N, 6.523203° E, WGS-84; 17 m above sea level), São Tomé Island, Republic of São Tomé e Príncipe  
TypesHolotype. MUHNAC/MB03–001065 (Fig. 4), adult male collected, by Luis Ceríaco, Mariana Marques and Ana Carolina Sousa on 24 February 2016. The specimen was chopped in half by a local man with a machete, and collected minutes after this event. The choice of this particular specimen as holotype is justified as it is the source of the comparative molecular data.
Paratypes. All specimens from the Island of São Tomé, Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Eight specimens: IICT 18-1972, adult male collected in Ribeira Peixe (0.090278o N, 6.615278o E, this and all following coordinates use map datum WGS-84; 17 m above sea level) by an unknown collector on 24 December 1972; IICT 20-1967, adult female collected in Santa Josefina (0.247882o N, 6.738315o E; 69 m above sea level) by an unknown collector on October 1967; IICT 2-1966, adult female, without specific locality (São Tomé island) by an unknown collector on 20 February 1966; ZMH R10526, unsexed adult, without specific locality (São Tomé island) collected by Carl Weiss in the late 1840s; ZMH R10527, unsexed adult, without specific locality (São Tomé island) collected by Richard Greef in 1879/1880; MHNG 2518.41 and MHNG 2518.42, both unsexed adults collected in Rio Angra Toldo (0.156881 N, 6.668792o E; 75 m above sea level) by Tilman Nill in 3 April 1991; MHNG 2462.43, adult male collected in the environs of Neves (0.353192 N, 6.634972o E; 281 m above sea level) by Heft and Fahr on 8 August 1989. 
CommentSynonymy: after Ceriaco et al. 2017 (who do not list all references cited in the synonymy). 
EtymologyThe species is named after Pêro (also known as Pedro) Escobar (?–?), one of the 15 -century Portuguese navigators who discovered São Tomé Island on December 21, 1471, Annobon Island on January 1, 1472, and Príncipe island on January 17, 1472, and participated in the discovery of the ocean route from Portugal to India under the command of Vasco da Gama (circa 1460–1524) in 1497, as well as in the expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral’s (circa 1467–circa 1520) that “discovered” Brazil in 1500. 
  • Bocage, J. V. Barboza du. 1886. Reptis e amphibios de S. Thomé. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa, 11:65-70.
  • Bocage, J.V.B. 1879. Subsidios para a Fauna das possessões portuguezas d’Africa occidental. Jornal das Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, 7 (26), 85–96
  • Bocage, J.V.B. 1889. Breves considerações sobre a fauna de S. Thomé. Jornal das Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes. Segunda Série, 1 (1), 33–36
  • Bocage, J.V.B. 1895. A doninha de São Tomé. Jornal das Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, Segunda Série, 4 (13), 24–27
  • Bocage, J.V.B. du 1905. Contribution à la faune des quatre îles du Golfe de Guinée, IV- Île de St. Thomé. Jorn. Acad. Sci. Lisboa, VII (2): 65-96
  • Bocage,J.V. du B. 1866. Lista dos reptis das possessões portuguezas d'Africa occidental que existem no Museu Lisboa. Jorn. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa 1: 37-56
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1906. Report on the reptiles collected by the late L. Fea in West Africa. Ann. Mus. civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (3) 2: 196-216 - get paper here
  • Capocaccia, L. 1961. Contributo allo studio dei serpenti delle isole del Golfo di Guinea. Ann. Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Genova, 72: 285-309. - get paper here
  • CERÍACO, LUIS M. P.; MARIANA P. MARQUES, ANDREAS SCHMITZ, AARON M. BAUER 2017. The “Cobra-preta” of São Tomé Island, Gulf of Guinea, is a new species of Naja Laurenti, 1768 (Squamata: Elapidae) Zootaxa 4324 (1): 121–141 - get paper here
  • Ferreira, J.B. 1902. Lista dos Reptis e Batrachios da colecção do Sr. Newton. Jornal das Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, Segunda Série, 6, 281–284
  • Greef, R. 1885. Die Fauna der Guinea-Inseln S. Thomé und Rolas. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Gesammten Naturwissenschaften zu Marburg, (2) :41—79 [1884]
  • Hofer, D. 2002. The São Tomé and Principé Handbook. D. Hofer Verlag, Bern, 152 pp.
  • Manacas, S. 1958. Anfíbios e Répteis das ilhas de São Tomé e do Príncipe e do Ilhéo das Rolas. Conferencia Intern. dos Africanistas Ocidentais, Comunicacoes Zool. e Biol. Animal, 6. Sess., 4: 179-192.
  • Manaças, S. 1973. Alguns dos anfíbios e répteis da província de S. Tomé e Príncipe. In: Livro de Homenagem ao Prof. Fernando Frade. Junta Investigação do Ultramar, Lisboa, pp. 219–230
  • Nill, T. 1993. Die Schlangen der Insel São Tomé (Golf von Guinea) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, 19 (7), 71–73
  • Schatti, B., & Loumont, C. 1992. [A contribution to the herpetofauna of Sao Tome (Gulf of Guinea) (Amphibia & Reptilia)]. Zool. Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. für Tierkunde, Dresden, 47: 23-36
  • Themido, A.A. 1941. Répteis e batráquios das colónias portuguesas. Memórias e Estudos do Museu Zoológico da Universidade de Coimbra, 119, 1–31
  • Vieira, L. 1886. Noticia ácerca dos productos zoologicos trazidos da ilha de S. Thomé para o Muzeu Zoologico da Universidade de Coimbra pelo Sr. Adolpho F. Moller, em 1885. O Instituto, 34: 235–241
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