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Naja sputatrix BOIE, 1827

IUCN Red List - Naja sputatrix - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Indonesian Cobra
G: Javanische Speikobra 
SynonymNaja sputatrix BOIE 1827: 557
Naja leptocoryphaea BERTHOLD 1842: 71
Naia tripudians var. sputatrix — BOULENGER 1896
Naja naja sputatrix — STEJNEGER 1907
Naja tripudians sputatrix — DE ROOIJ 1917
Naja naja sputatrix — KOPSTEIN 1938
Naja kaouthia sputatrix — DERANIYAGALA 1960 (part)
Naja naja sputatrix — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Naja sputatrix — WÜSTER & THORPE 1989
Naja sputatrix — WELCH 1994: 93
Naja (Naja) sputatrix — WALLACH et al. 2009
Naja sputatrix — WALLACH et al. 2014: 463 
DistributionIndonesia (Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Komodo, Alor, Lomblen, Sulawesi)

Type locality: Java, Indonesia  
TypesHolotype: RMNH (C.G.C. Reinwardt). 

The name "Naja naja sputatrix" was formerly used for populations of several species of Asiatic Naja.

Distribution: Reported as Naja naja for Komodo by AUFFENBERG 1980. The latest record of this species from Sulawesi is from KOPSTEIN 1936. DE LANG & VOGEL (2005) thus consider this species as doubtful for this island. Not found on the Malyan peninsula as reported by MANTHEY & GROSSMANN (1997). For a map see Shi et al. 2022: 3 (Fig. 1).

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Auffenberg W 1980. The herpetofauna of Komodo, with notes on adjacent areas. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 25 (2): 39-156 - get paper here
  • Berthold,A.A. 1840. Ueber verschiedene neue oder seltene Amphibienarten. Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 1: 47-72 [1842 ?]
  • Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis von Oken 20: 508-566. - get paper here
  • Chowdhury, M. A. W., Müller, J., & Varela, S. 2021. Climate change and the increase of human population will threaten conservation of Asian cobras. Scientific Reports, 11(1): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Glässer-Trobisch, Andrea & Dietmar Trobisch 2023. Bei Reisbauern in Ostjava – auf der Suche nach der Gestreiften Fischnatter (Xenochrophis vittatus). Elaphe 2023 (6): 54
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • KHOERUNISA, IRA; MIRZA D. KUSRINI, AND ANI MARDIASTUTI 2021. Diversity of snake rescued from residential areas in Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, Indonesia. Media Konservasi 26 (3): 231-238; DOI: 10.29244/medkon.26.3.231-238 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Lang, Ruud de 2011. The Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (1): 46-54 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2012. Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Edition Chimaira, 349 pp. - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de & G. Vogel 2005. The snakes of Sulawesi. A field guide to the land snakes of Sulawesi with identification keys. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 25, Frankfurt am Main, 312 pp.
  • Mavromichalis, Johan M.W. & Silvia A. Bloem 1995. A successful breeding of Naja naja sputatrix atra. Litteratura Serpentium 15 (2): 26-30 - get paper here
  • MEGANTARA, E. N., JAUHAN, J., SHANIDA, S. S., HUSODO, T., FAUZI, D. A., HENDRAWAN, R., WULANDARI, I. & YUANSAH, Y. 2022. Herpetofauna distribution in different land cover types of West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(6) - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Yury A. Lukin 2020. A Revised Herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (6): 353-368 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Shi, S.‐C.; Vogel, G.; Ding, L.; Rao, D.‐Q.; Liu, S.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Z.‐J.; Chen, Z.‐N. 2022. Description of A New Cobra (Naja Laurenti, 1768; Squamata, Elapidae) from China with Designation of a Neotype for Naja atra. Animals 12, 3481
  • Slowinski, Joseph B. and Wolfgang Wüster. 2000. A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica 56 (2): 257-270 - get paper here
  • Smetsers, Peet 1998. Successful breeding of Naja sputatrix, the spitting cobra (white phase). Litteratura Serpentium 18 (1): 4-6 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wüster W. 1996. The status of the cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti, 1768 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae) on the island of Sulawesi. The Snake 27 (2): 85-90.
  • Wüster, W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1989. Population affinities of the Asiatic cobra (Naja naja) species complex in south-east Asia: reliability and random resampling. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 36: 391-409. - get paper here
  • Wüster, W.; Thorpe,R.S. 1991. Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite. Experientia 47: 205-209 - get paper here
  • Wüster, Wolfgang 1993. A century of confusion: Asiatic cobras revisited. Vivarium 4 (4): 14-18
  • Zonneveld, J. P., Zaim, Y., Rizal, Y., Aswan, Hascaryo, A., Larick, R., Ciochon, R. 2018. Predation of the Javan Spitting Cobra (Naja sputatrix) on a Painted Bronzeback (Dendrelaphis cf. D. pictus) in the Sangiran Area, Central Java, Indonesia. Captive & Field Herpetology 2 (1): 33-37 - get paper here
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