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Natrix natrix (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesNatrix natrix algirus (fide SOCHUREK 1979)
Natrix natrix astreptophora (SEOANE 1884)
Natrix natrix calabra VANNI & LANZA 1983
Natrix natrix cetti GENÉ 1838
Natrix natrix corsa (HECHT 1930)
Natrix natrix cypriaca (HECHT 1930)
Natrix natrix fusca CATTANEO 1990
Natrix natrix gotlandica NILSON & ANDRÉN 1981
Natrix natrix helvetica (LACÉPÈDE 1789)
Natrix natrix lanzai KRAMER 1970
Natrix natrix natrix (LINNAEUS 1758)
Natrix natrix persa (PALLAS 1814)
Natrix natrix schweizeri L. MÜLLER 1932
Natrix natrix scutata (PALLAS 1771)
Natrix natrix sicula (CUVIER 1829) 
Common NamesE: European Grass Snake
G: Ringelnatter 
SynonymColuber Natrix LINNAEUS 1758: 220
Natrix vulgaris LAURENTI 1768
Coluber scutatus PALLAS 1771
Coluber torquatus LACÉPÈDE 1789
Coluber persa PALLAS 1814
Tropidonotus natrix BOIE 1826
Tropidonotus natrix — EICHWALD 1831
Tropidonotus ater EICHWALD 1831
Natrix cetti GENÉ 1839: 272
Coluber Natrix — GRAY 1852: 509
Tropidonotus natrix — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 555
Tropidonotus natrix var. picturata JAN 1863 (non SCHLEGEL 1837: 314)
Tropidonotus natrix var. moreoticus BEDRIAGA 1881: 289 (140)
Tropidonotus natrix var. bilineata — PERACCA 1890
Tropidonotus natrix — BOULENGER 1893: 219
Natrix natrix — STEJNEGER 1907
Tropidonotus natrix — BOULENGER 1913
Tropidonotus natrix algericus HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix bithynius HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix britannicus HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix cephallonicus HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix cypriacus HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix dystiensis HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix schirvanae HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix syrae HECHT 1930
Tropidonotus natrix syriacus HECHT 1930
Natrix megalocephala ORLOV & TUNIYEV 1987
Natrix megalocephala — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Natrix natrix — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Natrix natrix — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 510
Natrix megalocephala — ANANJEVA et al. 2006
Natrix megalocephala — WALLACH et al. 2014: 477
Natrix natrix — WALLACH et al. 2014: 477

Natrix natrix astreptophora (SEOANE 1884)
Natrix natrix astreptophora — MALKMUS 1990
Natrix natrix astreptophora — SCHLÜTER 2009
Natrix astreptophora — POKRANT et al. 2016

Natrix natrix calabra VANNI & LANZA 1983
Natrix natrix calabra — CORTI 2013

Natrix natrix cetti GENÉ 1838
Natrix natrix cetti — SCHMID 2013

Natrix natrix cypriaca (HECHT 1930)
Natrix natrix cypriaca — BLOSAT 1998
Natrix natrix cypriaca — BAIER & WIEDL 2010

Natrix natrix helvetica (LACÉPÈDE 1789)
Coluber helveticus LACÉPÈDE 1789
Natrix natrix helvetica — HENLE 1980
Natrix helvetica — TREPTE 1993
Natrix natrix helvetica — PAWLOWSKI & KRÄMER 2009

Natrix natrix lanzai KRAMER 1970
Natrix natrix lanzai — SCHWARZER et al. 1982

Natrix natrix persa (PALLAS 1814)
Coluber persa PALLAS 1814
Coluber minutus PALLAS 1814
Natrix natrix persa — FORCART 1950
Natrix natrix persa — SCHLÜTER 2003
Natrix natrix persa — RUTSCHKE et al. 2005
Natrix natrix syriaca
Natrix natrix persa — AFRASIAB 2011

Natrix natrix schweizeri MÜLLER 1932
Natrix natrix schweizeri — KLESIUS 2013

Natrix natrix scutata (PALLAS 1771)
Coluber scutatus PALLAS 1771
Natrix natrix scutata — BISCHOFF 2002

Natrix natrix sicula (CUVIER 1829)
Natrix natrix sicula — SCHLÜTER 2009 
DistributionNorway, Sweden, Finland, England, France (Corsica), Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia), Denmark, Austria, Switzerland, Italy (Sardinia, Elba), Hungary, Romania, Croatia (including some adriatic islands), Slovenia, Slovakia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece (Limnos, Lesbos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Chios, Samos, Samothraki, Andros, Corfu, Milos: Kimolos), Turkey, Cyprus, Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar,

N Iran, Iraq, Syria, USSR/Soviet Union, NW China (Xinjiang),

Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Russia (incl. Siberia), Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia, Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, NW Mongolia; elevations 0-3000 m.

algirus: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia

astreptophora: Portugal, Spain, S France

calabra: Italy (Calabria)

cetti: Italy

corsa: Corsica

cypriaca: Cyprus

megalocephala (invalid): Soviet Union, S Russia (Caucasus), Azerbaijan, Republic of Georgia, Russia, Turkey; Type locality: Pitsunda, Republic of Georgia

persa: Slovakia, Bulgaria (etc.), Greece (Lesbos, Rhodos), Turkey, N Iran, Syria, Croatia (Krk etc.)

schweizeri: Greece

Type locality: Europe Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. N. tessellata hybridizes with N. natrix and N. maura (Mebert 2011). 
TypesType: NHRM = NRM (Stockholm) ? -- apparently lost (Andersson 1899: 14)
Holotype: ZISP 11846, female [megalocephala]
Holotype: ZMB 19636 [Tropidonotus natrix algericus]
Holotype: ZMB 31425 [Tropidonotus natrix bithynius]
Holotype: ZMB 33060 [Tropidonotus natrix britannicus]
Holotype: ZMB 18422 [Tropidonotus natrix cephallonicus]
Holotype: ZMB 16122 [Tropidonotus natrix cypriacus]
Holotype: ZMB 13534 [Tropidonotus natrix dystiensis]
Holotype: ZMB 1938 [Tropidonotus natrix schirvanae]
Holotype: ZMB 13533 [Tropidonotus natrix syrae]
Holotype: ZMB 13768 [Tropidonotus natrix syriacus] 
CommentType species: Coluber Natrix LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Natrix LAURENTI 1768. Note that the generic nomen Serpens Garsault, 1764 is a senior doxisonym of Natrix Laurenti, 1768 (DUBOIS & BOUR 2010).

Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Guystebbinsus Hoser 2012, Jackyhosernatrix Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Natrix. Natrix megalocephala is synonymous with Natrix natrix scutata (VENCHI & SINDACO 2006, BÖHME 2009, Salamandra 45: 61) or Natrix natrix (Kindler et al. 2013). Tropidonotus natrix var. picturata JAN 1863 is most likely a mutation of Natrix natrix (Müller & Mertens 1932).

Habitat: Böse (1897) reported sightings of this species in the open ocean, 1 km and more away from the shore.

Subspecies: THORPE (1975) recognized only 4 subspecies: natrix, cetti, corsa, and helvetica (with N. n. natrix to include cypriaca, fusca, gotlandica, persa, schweizeri, scutata, and syriaca and helvetica to include helvetica, astreptophora, lanzai, and sicula). SOCHUREK (1979) suggested to recognize N.n. algirus. Natrix natrix helvetica was sometimes considered as valid species. See Orlov & Tuniyev (1987) for differences between N. n persa, N. n. scutata and Natrix megalocephala.

In the French Pyrenees region, N. n. astreptophora and N. n. helvetica hybridize occasionally. N. n. astreptophora differs consistently from all other grass snakes by its reddish iris coloration and in having significantly fewer ventral scales and another skull morphology. Pokrant et al. (2016) that Natrix astreptophora (Seoane, 1884) should be recognized as a distinct species.

Size: up to 2m (S Europe) or 180 cm (Central Europe) 
References
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