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Nerodia clarkii (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)

IUCN Red List - Nerodia clarkii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaNatricidae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesNerodia clarkii clarkii (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)
Nerodia clarkii compressicauda KENNICOTT, 1860: 335
Nerodia clarkii taeniata (COPE, 1895: 676) 
Common NamesSalt Marsh Snake
clarkii: Gulf Salt Marsh Snake
compressicauda: Mangrove Salt Marsh Snake
taeniata: Atlantic Salt Marsh Snake 
SynonymRegina Clarkii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 48
Tropidonotus clarkii — BOULENGER 1893: 238
Natrix compressicauda — BARBOUR 1915
Natrix clarki — ALLEN 1932
Natrix sipedon clarkii — CLAY 1938: 180
Nerodia clarkii clarkii — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 155
Nerodia clarkii taeniata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 155
Nerodia clarkii compressicauda — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 155
Nerodia clarki — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 627
Natrix fasciata clarki
Nerodia clarkii — CROTHER et al. 2012

Nerodia clarkii clarkii (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)
Regina Clarkii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 48
Nerodia clarkii clarkii — CROTHER 2000: 66
Nerodia clarkii clarkii — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 147
Nerodia clarkii clarkii — CROTHER et al. 2012

Nerodia clarkii compressicauda KENNICOTT, 1860
Nerodia compressicauda KENNICOTT 1860: 335
Tropidonotus compressicauda — BOULENGER 1893: 238
Natrix compressicauda — LOENNBERG 1894
Natrix sipedon compressicauda — CLAY 1938: 180
Nerodia clarkii compressicauda — CROTHER 2000: 66
Nerodia clarkii compressicauda — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 149
Nerodia clarkii compressicauda — CROTHER et al. 2012

Nerodia clarkii taeniata (COPE 1895)
Natrix compressicauda taeniata COPE 1895: 676
Nerodia clarkii taeniata — CROTHER 2000: 67
Nerodia clarkii taeniata — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 148
Nerodia clarkii taeniata — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (coastal Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, SE Texas),
N Cuba

clarki: coastal Texas

compressicauda: southern Florida and the Florida Keys; northern coast of Cuba; Type locality: south of Tampa Bay, Florida.

taeniata: Florida; Type locality: Florida, Volusia County, Volusia, National Gardens.

Type locality: Indianola, Calhoun Co., Texas. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 2264.
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 10903-04 [taeniata]
Holotype: USNM 1348 [compressicauda] 
CommentFor illustrations see Wright and Wright, 1957; Neill, 1965 (Cuban specimen); Conant and Collins 1991; Ashton and Ashton, 1982. DUNSON (1979) synonymized N. c. taeniata with N. c. compressicauda, proposing that it was a pattern variant of the latter. LAWSON (1991) resurrected N. c. taeniata based on allozyme data.

Ecology: Nerodia clarkii is the only North American snake species restricted to a brackish water environment and has evolved behavioral (Pettus 1963) and physiological (Dunson 1980) specializations associated with a salt tolerance.

Habitat: at least partially coastal and thus considered (partially) “marine”. See also Ecology. 
References
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Ashton, R.E., Jr., and Ashton, P.S. 1982. Handbook of reptiles and amphibians of Florida. Pt. I. Snakes. Windward PubI., Inc., Miami: 176 pp.
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Barbour, Thomas;Noble, Gladwyn Kingsley 1915. Notes on the water snake Natrix compressicauda. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1915 (January): 29-35 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1895. On some North American Snakes. American Naturalist 29: 676-680 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dunson WA 1980. The relation of sodium and water balance to survival in sea water of estuarine and freshwater races of the snakes Nerodia fasciata, N. sipedon and N. valida. Copeia 1980:268–280 - get paper here
  • Dunson, William A. 1979. Occurrence of partially striped forms of the mangrove snake Nerodia fasciata compressicauda Kenicott and comments on the status of N. f. taeniata Cope. Florida Scientist 42: 102-112
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Jansen, Kevin P.; Henry R. Mushinsky & Stephen A. Karl 2008. Population genetics of the mangrove salt marsh snake, Nerodia clarkii compressicauda, in a linear, fragmented habitat. Conserv Genet 9:401–410
  • Kennicott,R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Lawson, Robin;Meier, Albert J.;Frank, Phillip G.;Moler, Paul E. 1991. Allozyme variation and systematics of the Nerodia fasciata-Nerodia clarkii complex of water snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae). Copeia 1991 (3): 638-659 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • Neill, W.T. 1965. Notes on aquatic snakes, Natrix and Tretanorhi nus, in Cuba. Herpetologica 21 (1): 62-67. - get paper here
  • Pettus D. 1963. Salinity and subspeciation in Natrix sipedon. Copeia 1963:449–504 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Werler, John E.&; James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Wright, A. H., & Wright, A. A. 1957. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada 1. Constable, London, xviii + 564 pp.
 
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