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Nerodia rhombifer (HALLOWELL, 1852)

IUCN Red List - Nerodia rhombifer - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaNatricidae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesNerodia rhombifer blanchardi (CLAY 1938)
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer (HALLOWELL 1852)
Nerodia rhombifer werleri (CONANT 1953) 
Common NamesE: Diamondback Water Snake
werleri: Diamondback Watersnake
G: Diamant Wassernatter, Rauten-Schwimmnatter 
SynonymTropidonotus rhombifera HALLOWELL 1852: 177
Tropidonotus rhombifer — HALLOWELL 1852: 177
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer (HALLOWELL 1852)
Nerodia rhombifer — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 147
Natrix rhombifera — ALLEN 1932
Natrix rhombifera — CLIBURN 1956
Natrix rhombifera — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 149
Nerodia rhombifer — LINER 1994
Nerodia rhombifer — CROTHER 2000
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 155
Nerodia rhombifer — CROTHER et al. 2012

Nerodia rhombifer blanchardi (CLAY 1938)
Natrix rhombifera blanchardi CLAY 1938

Nerodia rhombifer werleri (CONANT 1953)
Nerodia rhombifer werleri — ALDRIDGE et al. 2003
Nerodia rhombifer werleri — BRANDLEY et al. 2010 
DistributionUSA (Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, SW Indiana, W Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama),
Mexico (NE Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas), Guatemala, Belize

rhombifer: SC USA (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana); Type locality: Arkansas, Arkansas River, Creek Boundary.

blanchardi: E Mexico (north of Veracruz, Tamaulipas)

werleri: SE Mexico (Veracruz, Puebla); Type locality: Mexico: on the Alvarado-San Andres Tuxtla road approximately 18 mi SE Alvarado, Veracruz; Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 5047
Holotype: UIMNH 67067 (FAS 3333), J. Werler; February 8, 1953. [werleri] 
CommentReproduction: viviparous. There is evidence for maternal-fetal transfer of nutrients in this species (Blackburn 1994).

DIAGNOSIS (rhombifer): The diamond-back water snake can be distinguished from many other species of the genus by its large number (25 to 31, usually 27) of scale rows and from all others by the narrow diagonal bars which connect the median dorsal series of spots with the lateral spots in alternation on each side. Its belly is marked with semi-lunar dark spots [CLAY 1938: 177].

DIAGNOSIS (blanchardi): This southern race is readily distinguished from its northern counterpart, N. r. rhombifera, by its immaculate belly, that of rhombifera being strongly marked with semi-lunar dark spots and by its paler, more obscure dorsal coloration [CLAY 1938: 178]. 
References
  • Aldridge, R.D.; Williams, K.A. & Teillery, R.R. 2003. Seasonal feeding and coelomic fat mass in the watersnake Nerodia rhombifer werleri. Herpetologica 59 (1): 43-51 - get paper here
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1994. Standardized criteria for the recognition of embryonic nutritional patterns in squamate reptiles. Copeia 1994 (4): 925-935 - get paper here
  • Bogosian, Victor; Eric C. Hellgren, and Raymond W. Moody 2012. Assemblages of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals on an Urban Military Base in Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 57 (3): 277-284. - get paper here
  • Brandley, Matthew C.; Tim J. Guiher, R. Alexander Pyron, Christopher T. Winne, Frank T. Burbrink 2010. Does dispersal across an aquatic geographic barrier obscure phylogeographic structure in the diamond-backed watersnake (Nerodia rhombifer)?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (2): 552-560 - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A synopsis of the North American Water Snakes of the genus Natrix. Copeia 1938 (4): 173-182 - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A new water snake of the genus Natrix from Mexico. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 27: 251-255
  • Cliburn,J.W. 1956. The taxonomic relations of the water snakes Natrix taxispilota and rhombifera. Herpetologica 12: 198-200 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant, R. 1969. A review of the water snakes of the genus Natrix in México. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 142: 1-140
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R.;Thornton, Okla W., Jr 1996. Geographic Distribution. Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 35 - get paper here
  • Edmond, Brian S. 1993. Nerodia rhombifer (Diamondback Water Snake). USA: Missouri. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 68 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Farr, William L. and Jerry Caraviotis. 2014. Nerodia rhombifer (diamond-backed watersnake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 145-146
  • George, Steven G.;Jensen, Steve L. 1993. Nerodia rhombifer (Diamondback water snake). USA: Louisiana. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 156 - get paper here
  • Gosser, Allen L.;Kennamer, Lee F.;Dobie, James L. 1996. Distribution of Nerodia taxispilota and Nerodia rhombifer in Alabama. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 217 - get paper here
  • Grant, Chapman 1937. Herpetological notes from Central Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 18 (3): 370-372 - get paper here
  • Hallowell,E. 1852. Descriptions of new species of reptiles inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 177-182 - get paper here
  • Hampton, P. M. 2013. Feeding in natricines: relationships among feeding morphology, behavior, performance and preferred prey type. Journal of Zoology, 290: 215–224. doi: 10.1111/jzo.12029 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • McCALLISTER, C. T. 1985. Nerodia rhombifera (Hallowell). Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 376: 1-4. - get paper here
  • Meza Parral, Y.; Sarmiento rojas, A. & Ramírez Valverde, T. 2010. NERODIA RHOMBIFER WERLERI (HALLOWELL, 1852) (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE), NUEVO REGISTRO PARALAOFIDIOFAUNADE PUEBLA, MÉXICO. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 26(1): 243-244
  • Palis, John G. 2014. Nerodia rhombifer (diamond-backed watersnake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 146
  • Pérez-Higareda, Gonzalo, Marco A. López-Luna, David Chiszar and Hobart M. Smith 2002. Additions to and Notes on the Herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico. Bull Chicago Herp. Soc. 37(4):67-68 - get paper here
  • Pilgrim, Melissa A; Terence M Farrell, Peter G May, Marcus. R Vollman, and Richard A Seigel 2011. Secondary Sex Ratios in Six Snake Species. Copeia 2011 (4): 553-558. - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1944. Snakes of the Hoogstraal Expeditions to northern Mexico. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 29 (8): 135-152 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Tucker, John K.;Camerer, James B. 1994. Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer (diamondback water snake). USA: Illinois. Herpetological Review 25 (1): 34 - get paper here
  • Werler, John E.&; James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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