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Nerodia rhombifer (HALLOWELL, 1852)

IUCN Red List - Nerodia rhombifer - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesNerodia rhombifer blanchardi (CLAY 1938)
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer (HALLOWELL 1852)
Nerodia rhombifer werleri (CONANT 1953) 
Common NamesE: Diamondback Water Snake
werleri: Diamondback Watersnake
G: Diamant Wassernatter, Rauten-Schwimmnatter
S: Culebra de Agua de Diamantada 
SynonymTropidonotus rhombifera HALLOWELL 1852: 177
Tropidonotus rhombifer — HALLOWELL 1852: 177
Nerodia rhombifer — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 147
Nerodia holbrookii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 43
Natrix rhombifera — ALLEN 1932
Natrix rhombifera — CLIBURN 1956
Natrix rhombifera — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Nerodia rhombifera — MCCALLISTER 1985
Nerodia rhombifera rhombifera — MEHRTENS 1987: 161
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 149
Nerodia rhombifer — LINER 1994
Nerodia rhombifer — CROTHER 2000
Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 155
Nerodia rhombifer — CROTHER et al. 2012
Nerodia rhombifer — WALLACH et al. 2014: 484

Nerodia rhombifer blanchardi (CLAY 1938)
Natrix rhombifera blanchardi CLAY 1938
Natrix rhombifera blanchardi — SMITH 1939: 318
Natrix rhombifera blanchardi — SHANNON & SMITH 1949

Nerodia rhombifer werleri (CONANT 1953)
Natrix rhombifera werleri CONANT 1953
Nerodia rhombifer werleri — ALDRIDGE et al. 2003
Nerodia rhombifer werleri — BRANDLEY et al. 2010 
DistributionUSA (Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, SW Indiana, W Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama),
Mexico (NE Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Campeche ), Guatemala, Belize

rhombifer: SC USA (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana); Type locality: Arkansas, Arkansas River, Creek Boundary.

blanchardi: E Mexico (north of Veracruz, Tamaulipas)

werleri: SE Mexico (Veracruz, Puebla); Type locality: Mexico: on the Alvarado-San Andres Tuxtla road approximately 18 mi SE Alvarado, Veracruz;  
Reproductionovovivparous. There is evidence for maternal-fetal transfer of nutrients in this species (Blackburn 1994). Facultative Parthenogenesis (Gasanov & Katz 2020). 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 5047, USNM 7253
Holotype: CM 9512 [blanchardi]
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 67067 (FAS 3333), J. Werler; February 8, 1953. [werleri]
Syntype: USNM 1117 [Nerodia holbrookii] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (rhombifer): The diamond-back water snake can be distinguished from many other species of the genus by its large number (25 to 31, usually 27) of scale rows and from all others by the narrow diagonal bars which connect the median dorsal series of spots with the lateral spots in alternation on each side. Its belly is marked with semi-lunar dark spots [CLAY 1938: 177]. 
CommentDiet: fish 
EtymologyThe specific name was derived from the Latin words rhombus, meaning "rhomboid" (a skewed square or rectangle) and fero, meaning "bearing," in reference to the small middorsal rhomboid spots (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
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