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Nerodia taxispilota (HOLBROOK, 1838)

IUCN Red List - Nerodia taxispilota - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Brown Water Snake
G: Braune Wasserschlange, Braune Schwimmnatter 
SynonymColuber taxispilotus HOLBROOK 1838: 113
Tropidonotus taxispilotus HOLBROOK 1843: 35 (fide DUMÉRIL et al. 1854)
Nerodia taxispilota — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 43
Tropidonotus taxispilotus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 605
Tropidonotus taxispilotus — GARMAN 1884: 26
Natrix taxispilota — COPE 1889: 392
Tropidonotus taxispilotus — BOULENGER 1893: 245
Natrix taxispilota — LOENNBERG 1894
Natrix taxispilota — CLAY 1938
Natrix taxispilota — CLIBURN 1956
Nerodia taxispilota — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 148
Nerodia taxispilota — CROTHER 2000: 67
Nerodia taxispilota — CROTHER et al. 2012
Nerodia taxispilota — WALLACH et al. 2014: 485 
DistributionUSA (Florida, SE Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, E North Carolina, W Virginia)

Type locality: South Carolina seaboard and the Altahama River, Georgia.  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-16
Holotype: ANSP 6619 [Tropidonotus taxispilotus brocki] 
CommentSubspecies: Heilprin 1887 described Tropidonotus taxispilotus brocki of unknown status (from Florida, Lake Okeechobee, Eagle Bay). 
References
  • Akeret, B. 2009. Unter und über Wasser durch die Karstgewässer Floridas. Draco 10 (37): 24-29 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A synopsis of the North American Water Snakes of the genus Natrix. Copeia 1938 (4): 173-182 - get paper here
  • Cliburn,J.W. 1956. The taxonomic relations of the water snakes Natrix taxispilota and rhombifera. Herpetologica 12: 198-200 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Gibbons, J. W. & Mike Dorcas 2004. North American Water Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, 496 pp.
  • Gosser, Allen L.;Kennamer, Lee F.;Dobie, James L. 1996. Distribution of Nerodia taxispilota and Nerodia rhombifer in Alabama. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 217 - get paper here
  • Holbrook, John E. 1838. North American Herpetology, Vol. 2 (1st ed.). J. Dobson, Philadelphia, 130 pp. - get paper here
  • Holbrook, Joshua D. 2013. Nerodia taxispilota (brown watersnake) diet. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 333
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Kleopfer, John and Chad Boyce. 2016. Nerodia taxispilota (Brown Watersnake) Predation. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 150
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Linzey, D.W., & Clifford, M.J. 1981. Snakes of Virgina. Univ. Press of Virginia, Charlottesville 159 pp.
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 1983. Nerodia taxispilota (Holbrook). Brown water snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 331: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Perry, David A. 2013. Virginia Herpetological Society Survey of Back Bay NWR and False Cape State Park. Catesbeiana 33(2): 48-61 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Boundy, Jeff. 2007. A previously undescribed bone in the snout of the Brown Watersnake, Nerodia taxispilota. Herpetological Review 38 (3): 280-282 - get paper here
  • Serb, Jeanne M.;Petzing, John E. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Nerodia taxispilota. Herpetological Review 29 (1): 54 - get paper here
  • Siegel, Dustin S.; Stanley E. Trauth, Justin L. Rheubert, Brian Rabe, Brenton Ruopp, Aurélien Miralles, Christopher M. Murray, and Robert D. Aldridge 2014. Novel Cloacal Glands in Snakes: The Phylogenetic Distribution of Ventral Urodaeal Glands in Thamnophiini. Herpetologica Sep 2014, Vol. 70, No. 3: 279-289. - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Thomas, Travis M., Eric Suarez and Kevin M. Enge. 2015. New county records of reptiles from the Suwannee River, Florida, USA. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 608
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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