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Notechis scutatus (PETERS, 1861)

IUCN Red List - Notechis scutatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesNotechis scutatus scutatus (PETERS 1861)
Notechis scutatus occidentalis GLAUERT, 1948 
Common NamesE: Mainland Tiger Snake
scutatus: Eastern Tiger Snake
occidentalis: Western Tiger Snake
G: Östliche Tigerotter

E: ater: Black Tiger Snake, Krefft's Tiger Snake
humphreysi: Tasmanian Tiger Snake
niger: Peninsular Tiger Snake
serventyi: Chappell Island Tiger Snake
G: Schwarze Tigerotter 
SynonymNaja (Hamadryas) scutata PETERS 1861: 690
Alecto fasciolata JAN 1863: 117 (nom. nud. ?)
Hoplocephalus ater KREFFT 1866: 370
Alecto fasciolata JAN & SORDELLI 1873
Hoplocephalus fuscus STEINDACHNER 1867: 82
Notechis scutatus BOULENGER 1896
Notechis scutatus niger KINGHORN 1921: 145
Notechis scutatus — KINGHORN 1924
Notechis scutatus ater GLAUERT 1948
Notechis ater humphreysi WORRELL 1963
Notechis ater serventyi WORRELL 1963
Notechis ater — COGGER 1983: 229
Notechis scutatus — COGGER 1983: 229
Notechis scutatus — WELCH 1994: 93
Notechis ater — WELCH 1994: 93
Notechis ater — COGGER 2000: 659
Notechis scutatus — COGGER 2000: 660
Notechis scutatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010

Notechis scutatus occidentalis GLAUERT 1948
Notechis scutatus occidentalis GLAUERT 1948
Notechis ater occidentalis — COGGER 2000: 659 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia)

ater: Australia (Western Australia, South Australia,Tasmania);Flinders Ranges; Type locality: Flinders Range, S. A. (original register entry cites Port Lincoln, S. A. as the type locality).

niger: Kangaroo Island and other off-shore islands of South Australia.

humphreysi: King and nearby islands, Bass Strait.

occidentalis: SW West Australia.

Type locality: “Java” (in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 2815, presumed lost [Naja (Hamadryas) scutata PETERS 1862]
Syntypes: probably MSNM, not located, from Australia [Alecto fasciolata JAN 1863].
Syntypes: not found, from Australia [Hoplocephalus fuscus].
Holotype: WAM R9430, from unspecified locality, but collector from Bassendean, W. A. [Notechis scutatus occidentalis].
Holotype: AM 6577 [ater]
Holotype: AM R7124, from Deep Creek, 20 mi from Kingscote, Kangaroo Is., S. A. [Notechis scutatus niger].
Holotype: AM R17955, from New Year Is. near King Is., Bass Strait, Tasmania [Notechis ater humphreysi].
Holotype: AM R17953, from Chappell Is., Furneaux Group, Bass Strait, Tasmania [Notechis ater serventyi]. 
CommentKEOGH et al. (2005) synonymized N. ater with N. scutatus. Previously, Notechis scutatus niger has been renamed Notechis ater niger. Synonymy partly after Rawlinson 1991.

Reproduction: Viviparous.

Adult mainland snakes feed on frogs and mice, whereas adult island snakes mostly take silver-gull chicks.

Venomous! 
EtymologyEtymology (ater): Named after its color, Latin “ater, atra, atrum” = dark or black. 
References
  • Aubret, F. and R. Shine 2009. Genetic Assimilation and the Postcolonization Erosion of Phenotypic Plasticity in Island Tiger Snakes. Current Biology 19 (22): 1932-1936
  • Aubret, Fabien; Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Maumelat, Stéphanie 2005. Swimming and pregnancy in Tiger snakes, Notechis scutatus. Amphibia-Reptilia 26 (3): 396-400 - get paper here
  • Aubret, Fabien; Michniewicz, Radika J. 2010. Warming up for cold water: influence of habitat type on thermoregulatory tactics in a semi-aquatic snake. Amphibia-Reptilia 31 (4): 525-531 - get paper here
  • Aubret, Fabien; Richard Shine & Xavier Bonnet 2004. Adaptive developmental plasticity in snakes. Nature 431: 261
  • Baehr, M. 1976. Beiträge zur Verbreitung und Ökologie tasmanischer Reptilien. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. (A) 292: 1-24 - get paper here
  • Clear, Rhian C. 2011. Notechis scutatus (tiger snake) predation. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 442 - get paper here
  • Cogger,H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Fabien, A., X. Bonnet, S. Maumelat, D. Bradshaw and T. Schwaner 2004. Diet divergence, jaw size and scale counts in two neighbouring populations of tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus). Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (1): 9-17 - get paper here
  • Fearn, Simon 1993. The tiger snake Notechis scutatus (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Tasmania. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23 (2): 17-29
  • Fearn, Simon 1994. Tiger snakes in Tasmania. Monitor: Bulletin of the Victorian Herpetological Society Inc. 5 (3): 121-130
  • Fearn, Simon 1995. Tiger snakes in Tazmania. Litteratura Serpentium 15 (5): 118-122
  • Glauert, L. 1948. A western tiger snake, Notechis scutatus occidentalis, subsp. nov. West. Aust. Nat. 1: 139-141
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Jan, G. & Sordelli, F. 1873. Iconographie Générale des Ophidiens. Atlas 1860-1881. Milan: Jan & Sordelli, 50 livr. - get paper here
  • Jan,G. 1863. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. Milano, A. Lombardi. vii + 143 pp.
  • Kinghorn, J. R. 1921. Studies in Australian reptiles. 2. Rec. Austral. Mus. 13: 143-154 - get paper here
  • Kinghorn, J. Roy 1924. Reptiles and batrachians from south and south-west Australia. Rec. Austral. Mus. 14 (3): 163-183 - get paper here
  • Krefft, G. 1866. Descriptions of three species of snakes of the genus Hoplocephalus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1866: 370-371 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Michael, D.R.; D.B. Lindenmayer; M. Crane; C. MacGregor; R. Montague-Drake; L. McBurney. 2011. Reptilia, Murray catchment, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. Check List 7 (1):25-29 - get paper here
  • Mirtschin, P. J., Bailey, N. 1990. A study of the Kreffts Black Tiger Snake Notechis ater ater (Reptilia : Elapidae ). The S. A. Naturalist 64 (3): 52-99.
  • Murphy, Michael J. 1994. Reptiles and amphibians of Seven Mile Beach National park, NSW. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 24 (2): 24-30
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1861. Eine zweite Übersicht (vergl. Monatsberichte 1859 p. 269) der von Hrn. F. Jagor auf Malacca, Java, Borneo und den Philippinen gesammelten und dem Kgl. zoologischen Museum übersandten Schlangen. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1861 (Juli): 683-691 [1862 on title page] - get paper here
  • Rawlinson P A 1991. Taxonomy and distribution of the Australian tiger snakes (Notechis) and copperheads (Austrelaps) (Serpentes, Elapidae). ROYAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA PROCEEDINGS 103 (2): 125-135
  • Rawlinson, P. A. 1974. Biogeography and ecology of the reptiles of Tasmania and the Bass Strait area. In: Williams, W. D. (ed.) Biogeography and Ecology in Tasmania,Chapt. 11. The Hague: Junk, pp. 291-338
  • Schwaner, Terry D. 1990. Geographic variation in scale and skeletal anomalies of tiger snakes (Elapidae: Notechis scutatus-ater complex) in southern Australia. Copeia 1990 (4): 1168-1173 - get paper here
  • Schwaner,T.D. & Sarre,S.D. 1990. Body size and sexual dimorphism in Mainand and Island Tiger Snakes. Journal of Herpetology 24 (3): 320-322 - get paper here
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Shine, R. 1977. Habitats, diets, and sympatry in snakes: a study from Australia. Can. J. Zool. 55: 1118-1128
  • Steindachner, F. 1867. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858,1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (Zoologie), Vol. 1, part 3 (Reptilien p.1-98). K. Gerold's Sohn/Kaiserlich-Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien [1869 on title page] - get paper here
  • Taylor, R. J.;Dudley, A.;Gale, P. G. 1993. Reptiles and amphibians in sclerophyll forest surrounding Old Chum Dam in north-eastern Tasmania. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23 (1): 26-31
  • Wilson,S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Worrell, E. 1963. Two new subspecies of the elapine genus Notechis from Bass Strait. Aust. Rept. Park Rec. 2: 2-11
  • Worrell, Eric 1994. Tiger snake island. Monitor: Bulletin of the Victorian Herpetological Society Inc. 5 (3): 97-112
 
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