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Oligodon purpurascens (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Brown Kukri Snake
G: Purpur-Kukrinatter, Braune-Kukrinatter 
SynonymXenodon purpurascens SCHLEGEL 1837: 90
Xenodon purpurascens - SCHLEGEL 1839
Simotes tri-notatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 631
Simotes albocinctus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 633 (nec Coronella albocincta CANTOR 1839)
Calamaria brachyorrhos — MOTLEY & DILLWYN 1855: 49
Simotes purpurascens - BLEEKER 1857
Simotes purpurascens var. C - GÜNTHER 1858
Simotes trinotatus - GÜNTHER 1864
Simotes labuanensis GÜNTHER 1864
Simotes purpurascens var. albocinctus — JAN 1865
Simotes obscurus THEOBALD 1868:42 (fide DAS et al. 1998)
Simotes crassus THEOBALD 1868:42 (fide DAS et al. 1998)
Simotes catenifer STOLICZKA 1873: 121
Simotes dennysi BLANFORD 1881
Simotes affinis FISCHER 1886: 8
Simotes labuanensis — BOULENGER 1885: 389
Simotes labuanensis - BOETTGER 1887
Simotes purpurascens var. labuanensis - BOETTGER 1898
Simotes purpurascens — BOULENGER 1894
Dicraulax purpurascens - COPE 1895
Simotes purpurascens var. trinotata - BOETTGER 1898
Simotes purpurascens var. B - WERNER 1900
Holarchus purpurascens - BARBOUR 1912
Oligodon purpurascens - WALL 1923
Oligodon purpurascens purpurascens - HAAS 1950
Oligodon purpurascens — HAILE 1958
Oligodon purpurascens — HENDRICKSON 1966: 67
Olygodon [sic] purpurascens — SCHULZ 1988
Oligodon purpurescens — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 371
Oligodon purpurascens — COX et al. 1998: 59
Oligodon purpuracens — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999 (in error)
Oligodon purpurascens — INGER & VORIS 2001
Oligodon purpurascens — TILLACK & GÜNTHER 2010 
DistributionIndonesia (Nias, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Kalimantan, Karimata Archipelago, Mentawai Archipelago, Riau Archipelago, We)
Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia), Pulau Tioman.
Singapore,
Thailand

Type locality: Java Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.4.20 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after TILLACK & GÜNTHER 2010.

Distribution: not in China fide Tillack & Günther 2009 and Malkmus et al. 2002.

This species occurs in two distinct phenotypes. One of the two phenotypes is characterized by a highly conspicuous red and banded coloration that suggests mimicry of an aposematic signal (Fig. 1 in DE ROOIJEN et al. 2011 and illustrations in Grismer et al., 2004; Van Rooijen and Van Rooijen, 2007; Tillack and Günther, 2009) whereas the second phenotype exhibits a cryptic brownish dull coloration (illustrations in De Rooijen et sl. 2011, Manthey and Grossmann, 1997; Chan-ard et al., 1999; Stuebing and Inger, 1999; Malkmus et al., 2002; Tillack and Günther, 2009). 
References
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1885. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Island of Nias. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16: 388-389 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • Fischer, J.G. 1886. Ueber eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von der Insel Nias und über eine zweite Art der Gattung Anniella GRAY Abh. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg 19 (1): 3-10
  • Haile, N.S. 1958. The snakes of Borneo, with a key to the species Sarawak Mus., Kuching, J. 8: 743-771.
  • Hendrickson,J.R. 1966. Observations on the fauna of Pulau Tioman and Pulau Tulai. 5. The Reptiles. Bull. Nat. Mus. Singapore 34: 53-71
  • Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. K. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography 28: 863-89 1
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 12. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lim, K.K.P. & Ng, H.H. 1999. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 6: 131-155
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Rooijen, Johan van; Perry L. Wood Jr.,,, Jesse L. Grismer,, L. Lee Grismer, and Wolfgang Grossmann 2011. Color Pattern Dimorphism in the Colubrid Snake Oligodon purpurascens (Schlegel, 1837) (Reptilia: Squamata). Russian Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): 215 – 220 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Générale: xxviii +251 S. + Partie Descriptive: 606 S. + xvi. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum) - get paper here
  • Schulz, Klaus-Dieter 1987. Erfahrungen mit Kukri-Nattern der Gattung Oligodon (BOIE 1827). Herpetofauna 9 (52): 32-34 - get paper here
  • Sclater,W.L. 1891. Notes on a collection of snakes in the Indian Museum, with descriptions of several new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal LX: 230-250 - get paper here
  • Stoliczka,F. 1873. Notes on some species of Malayan Amphibia and reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42: 111-126 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Tillack, Frank and Rainer Günther 2010. Revision of the Species of Oligodon from Sumatra and Adjacent Islands, with Comments on the Taxonomic Status of Oligodon subcarinatus (Günther, 1872) and Oligodon annulifer (Boulenger, 1893) from Borneo (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (4): 265-294 [2009] - get paper here
  • van Rooijen J. & van Rooijen, M. 2002. Einige Ergänzungen, Berichtigungen und neue Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna von Pulau Tioman, West-Malaysia. Sauria 24 (3): 3-12 [erratum in 24 (4): 34] - get paper here
  • van Rooijen, Johan and Myriam van Rooijen. 2007. The land snakes of the Santubong Peninsula, Sarawak, Borneo: A preliminary list of species with natural history notes. Russian Journal of Herpetology 14 (1):27-38 - get paper here
 
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