You are here » home advanced search Ophryacus undulatus

Ophryacus undulatus (JAN, 1859)

IUCN Red List - Ophryacus undulatus - Vulnerable, VU

We have no photos, try to find some by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesMexican Horned Pit Viper 
SynonymTrigonocephalus (Atropos) undulatus JAN 1859
Lachesis undulatus BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops sphenophrys SMITH 1960
Ophryacus undulatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 311
Bothrops undulatus
Ophryacus undulatus — LINER 1994
Ophryacus undulatus — WELCH 1994: 95
Ophryacus undulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 314
Ophryacus undulatus — JADIN et al. 2011 
DistributionMexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca: Sierra Madre Oriental, Mesa del Sur, Sierra Madre del Sur, Puebla)

sphenophrys: Oaxaca; Type locality: Mexico: El Soledad, Oaxaca.

Type locality: "Messico" [Mexico]. Proposed restriction to "Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico" by Smith and Taylor, 1950: 350. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: MSNM (2), Milan Museum
Holotype: UIMNH 6262, W.L. Burger; July 22, 1949 [sphenophrys] 
CommentVenomous!

Habitat: forests

Type species: Trigonocephalus (Atropos) undulatus JAN 1859 is the type species of the genus Ophryacus COPE 1887.

Definition and diagnosis: Rostral broader than high, moderately to distinctly concave; three preoculars, upper largest and undivided, middle not fused with supralacunal, lower small, somewhat excluded from margin of orbit; three to four supraoculars along dorsal margin of eye including supraocular spine; ten to 13 supralabials; lip margin not scalloped; nine to 14 infralabials; single scale above eye forming long, relatively slender spine, slightly compressed to sub- circular in cross section, not occupying most of dorsal margin of orbit, tip pointed; adjacent scales along dorsal ocular margin often also modified, projecting slightly; canthals and internasals often raised into short spines or with especially high keels; scales in the supraocular region small and keeled; ten to 20 (usually 12–18) intersupraoculars; top of head covered with small scales, most having tubercular keels; second supralabial usually separated from prelacunal by single small subfoveal; subocular and supralabial series separated by two to four rows of small, roundish scales; 21 mid-dorsal scale rows; mid- dorsals at midbody not noticeably broad, obtusely rounded; keel generally extending to tip of scale or nearly so, apical pits not apparent; free portion of apex of dorsal scales moderate in extent, barely over- lapping contiguous scale; interstitial epidermal fold at cranial end of scale well developed; 157–178 ventrals; 37–57 subcaudals, divided; tail spine straight, about as long as preceding two to three subcaudals, pointed or obtusely rounded.
Frontal bones with concave dorsal surface, strongly elevated margins, moderately longer than wide; post- frontals moderate in size, not contacting frontal, comprising about equal amount of dorsal perimeter of orbit as parietals; posterolateral edges of dorsal surface of parietals forming distinct flat shelf continu- ing onto parietal as a raised ridge; junction between parietal and pro-otic irregular, not particularly angular; anterior portion of ectopterygoid possessing a shallow depression on medial side accommodating attachment of ectopterygoid retractor muscle; ectop- terygoid noticeably longer than expanded, flattened base of pterygoid (posterior to articulation with ectop- terygoid) with flat shaft tapering posteriorly; apex of choanal process positioned at about midlength on palatine, process moderately reduced in height, apex broadly rounded; dorsal surface of parietal roughly triangular; zero to one (usually zero) palatine teeth, seven to ten pterygoid teeth, seven to nine dentary teeth; pterygoid teeth extending to level of articula- tion of pterygoid with ectopterygoid; maxillary fang relatively short, only slightly longer than height of maxilla; fang at rest extending to level of suture between supralabials 7 and 8; splenial and angular bones fused; haemapophyses in contact distally.
Dorsum with zig-zag pattern; ground colour olive- brown, green, or grey, sometimes orange or yellow pigment present; dorsal scales usually finely mottled or speckled with black [from JADIN et al. 2011]. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name is derived from the Greek ophrys, meaning brow, and the Latin acus, meaning pointed, obviously in reference to the dis- tinctive supraocular spine-like scale. 
References
  • Camarillo,R.J.L. 1995. Distribution records for some amphibians and reptiles from Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 31 (4): 195-197
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Canseco-Marquez,L.; Gutierrez-Mayen,G. & Salazar-Arenas,J. 2000. New records and range extensions for amphibians and reptiles from Puebla, México. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 259-263 - get paper here
  • JADIN, ROBERT C.; ERIC N. SMITH and JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2011. Unravelling a tangle of Mexican serpents: a systematic revision of highland pitvipers. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 943–958
  • Jan, G. 1859. Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces de serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool., Paris (2) (11-12): 122-130
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Taggart, Travis W., Brian I. Crother, and Mary E. White 2001. Palm-pitviper (Bothriechis) phylogeny, mtDNA, and consilience. Cladistics 17: 355-370 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator