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Ophryacus undulatus (JAN, 1859)

IUCN Red List - Ophryacus undulatus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSlender-horned Pitviper, Mexican Horned Pit Viper 
SynonymTrigonocephalus (Atropos) undulatus JAN 1859
Teleuraspis undulatus — GARMAN 1884: 126
Ophryacus undulatus — FERRARI-PÉREZ 1886 (nom. nud.)
Lachesis undulatus BOULENGER 1896
Ophryacus undulatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 311
Ophryacus undulatus — LINER 1994
Ophryacus undulatus — WELCH 1994: 95
Ophryacus undulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 314
Ophryacus undulatus — JADIN et al. 2011
Ophryacus undulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 508 
DistributionMexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca: Sierra Madre Oriental, Mesa del Sur, Sierra Madre del Sur; Puebla, Hidalgo, Veracruz)

Type locality: "Messico" [Mexico]. Proposed restriction to "Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico" by Smith and Taylor, 1950: 350.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesSyntypes: MSNM (2), Milan Museum, lost during WW II (S. Scali, pers. comm., cited in GRÜNWALD et al. 2015). 
CommentVenomous!

Habitat: forests

Synonyms: Bothrops sphenophrys SMITH 1960 has been removed from the synonymy of O. undulatus by GRÜNWALD et al. 2015.

Sympatry: O. sphenophrys and O. undulatus have been collected within 7 km of one another.

Type species: Trigonocephalus undulatus JAN 1859 is the type species of the genus Ophryacus COPE 1887. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name is derived from the Greek ophrys, meaning brow, and the Latin acus, meaning pointed, obviously in reference to the dis- tinctive supraocular spine-like scale. 
References
  • Camarillo,R.J.L. 1995. Distribution records for some amphibians and reptiles from Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 31 (4): 195-197 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Canseco-Marquez,L.; Gutierrez-Mayen,G. & Salazar-Arenas,J. 2000. New records and range extensions for amphibians and reptiles from Puebla, México. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 259-263 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Grünwald, Christoph Imre, Nadia Pérez-Rivera, Iván Trinidad Ahumada-Carrillo, Héctor Franz-Chávez and Brandon Thomas La Forest. 2016. New distributional records for the herpetofauna of Mexico. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 85-90
  • Grünwald, Christoph I.; Jason M. Jones, Hector Franz-Chávez, and Iván T. Ahumada-Carrillo 2015. A new species of Ophryacus (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from eastern Mexico, with commentson the taxonomy of related pitvipers. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (4): 388 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • JADIN, ROBERT C.; ERIC N. SMITH and JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2011. Unravelling a tangle of Mexican serpents: a systematic revision of highland pitvipers. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 943–958
  • Jan, G. 1859. Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces de serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool., Paris (2) (11-12): 122-130
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • PALACIOS-AGUILAR, RICARDO & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Ramírez-Jiménez, Francisco, Pablo R. Simón-Salvador, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva and Larry David Wilson. 2016. Ophryacus undulatus (Jan, 1859). Mexico, Oaxaca. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1069 - get paper here
  • Solano-Zavaleta, Israel, Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández and Luis Canseco-Márquez. 2010. Geographic distribution: Ophryacus undulatus. Herpetological Review 41 (3): 381 - get paper here
  • Taggart, Travis W., Brian I. Crother, and Mary E. White 2001. Palm-pitviper (Bothriechis) phylogeny, mtDNA, and consilience. Cladistics 17: 355-370 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884
 
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