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Oreosaurus luctuosus (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymEcpleopus (Oreosaurus) luctuosus PETERS 1863: 203
Proctoporus luctuosus — BAUER et al. 1995: 57
Proctoporus luctuosus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Riama luctuosa — DOAN & CASTOE 2005
Oreosaurus luctuosus — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionVenezuela (Aragua), elevation 1100 m

Type locality: “Venezuela”  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 1162 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Oreosaurus): All unambiguously optimized synapomorphies for this clade are from DNA sequences. Phenotypic synapomorphies are not known. Other characteristics include: (1) head scales smooth; (2) frontoparietal and parietal scales paired; (3) interparietal, frontal and frontonasal scales single; (4) prefrontal scales usually absent (present in O. mcdiarmidi); (5) lower eyelid divided into several scales; (6) loreal scale usually present (absent in O. “Venezuela” and O. shrevei); (7) scale organs on labials present; (8) anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary scales unfused; (9) dorsal surface of the tongue covered in scale-like papillae; (10) nuchal scales keeled or smooth; (11) dorsal body scales hexagonal (or sub-hexagonal) or rectangular; smooth or keeled (prominent keel); (12) ventral body scales smooth; (13) limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed; (14) femoral pores in both sexes present; (15) hemipenial lobes large, distinct from hemipenial body (narrow, indistinct from hemipenial body in O. “Sierra Nevada”). Oreosaurus differs from Riama and Andinosaura by lacking a narrow band of differentiated granular lateral scales (oval, nongranular scales instead). [SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017].
CommentType species: Ecpleopus (Oreosaurus) luctuosus PETERS 1863 is the type species of the genus Oreosaurus PETERS 1863, as subsequently designated by BURT & BURT 1931.

History: Peters (1862) erected Oreosaurus as a subgenus of Ecpleopus for his new species E. (O.) striatus and E. (O.) luctuosus (in sequence). Boulenger (1885) elevated Oreosaurus to genus rank. Andersson (1914) synonymized it with Proctoporus, and Doan and Castoe (2005) implicitly placed it in the synonymy of Riama. Peters (1862) did not designate a type species. Although O. striatus was first described, Burt and Burt (1931), without comment (but still a valid action), designated O. luctuosus as the type species (Uzzell, 1958: 2; contra Peters and Donoso-Barros, 1970 and Kizirian, 1996: 86; SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017).

Uzzell (1958, 1970) suggested preliminary groupings within Proctoporus. The P. luctuosus group, unified by a divided palpebral eye disc, no median occipital, four supraoculars, and legs overlapping when adpressed, included P. achlyens Uzzell, P. laevis, P. luctuosus, P. oculatus, and P. shrevei Parker (Uzzell,1958). 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416.
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Peters, W. 1862. Über Cercosaura und die mit dieser Gattung verwandten Eidechsen aus Südamerika. Abh. Berlin Akad. 1862: 165-225
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales-Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Uzzell, T. M. 1970. Teiid lizards of the genus Proctoporus from Bolivia and Peru. Postilla 142: 1-39. - get paper here
  • Uzzell,T.M. 1958. Teiid lizards related to Proctoporus luctuosus, with the description of a new species from Venezuela. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 597: 1-15
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