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Oreosaurus mcdiarmidi (KOK & RIVAS, 2011)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnadia mcdiarmidi KOK & RIVAS 2011
Anadia breweri – GORZULA 1992: 276 (nomen nudum)
Anadia species a – GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999: 114-115,
Anadia sp. A – MCDIARMID & DONNELLY 2005: 514
Anadia breweri – BREWER-CARÍAS & AUDY 2010: 210 (nomen nudum)
Anadia mcdiarmidi KOK et al. 2012
Oreosaurus mcdiarmidi — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionVenezuela (Bolívar)

Type locality: summit of Abakapá-tepui, Bolívar State, Venezuela, 05°11'09''N 062°17'36''W, 2201 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: IRSNB 2677 (field number PK 3565), 1 adult female collected by Philippe J.R. Kok, 03-05-2011 at 11h39 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A fairly robust species currently not assigned to any species group. The new species is characterized by the following combination of characters: (1) size small, body robust (maximum known SVL 62.2 mm); (2) tail longer than SVL; (3) dorsal scales small, quadrangular; (4) middorsal scales 53-57; (5) suboculars large, unequal in size, with sometimes one scale slightly protruding downward between 4th and 5th supralabial, suboculars separated from palpebrals by 2-3 rows of mostly inconspicuous tiny scales, a few of them distinctly enlarged with angular downward protrusion between suboculars; (6) nasal entire, without sub-nostril groove; (7) 3-4 large pigmented palpebrals; (8) body uniform beige or greyish to bluish brown in life, devoid of any conspicuous pattern in males; (9) absence of any dark line on side of head in adult males; (10) venter immaculate golden grey in life; (11) femoral pores 9-10 on each side in males, unknown in females; (12) preanal pores absent; (13) hemipenis globose, weakly bilobed, bordered by numerous flounces (>20, including about eight medioproximal asulcate flounces) bearing comblike rows of minute weakly mineralized spinules, sulcus spermaticus divided in the crotch by a small fleshy bumplike structure, sulcus branches barely detectable.
The new taxon is immediately distinguished from Anadia ocellata, A. vittata, A. rhombifera, and A. petersi [all members of the ocellata group of Oftedal (1974)] and A. bogotensis [single member of the bogotensis group of Oftedal (1974)] in having quadrangular dorsal scales (subhexagonal in species of the ocellata group, imbricate in A. bogotensis), and in lacking a subnostril groove or divided nasal (nasal divided or subnostril groove present in species of the ocellata group and in A. bogotensis); from A. altaserrania [a member of the bitaeniata group of Oftedal (1974) according to Harris & Ayala (1987)] in having prefrontals (lacking in A. altaserrania), in having more femoral pores in males (9-10 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 3-4 in A. altaserrania), and in having a higher number of middorsal scales (53-57 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 45-47 in A. altaserrania); from A. bitaeniata, A. brevifrontalis, A. hobarti, A. pamplonensis, and A. pulchella [all members of the bitaeniata group of Oftedal (1974) according to La Marca & García-Pérez (1990)] in having a higher number of middorsal scales (53-57 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. maximum 50 in species of the bitaeniata group); from A. blakei and A. marmorata [members of the marmorata group of Oftedal (1974)] in having a higher number of middorsal scales (more than 50 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. less than 35 in A. blakei and A. marmorata); from A. bumanguesa [a member of the bitaeniata group of Oftedal (1974) according to Rueda-Almonacid & Caicedo (2004), but a possible synonym of A. steyeri and thus a member of the steyeri group of Oftedal (1974) according to Rivas et al. (in press)] in having a lower number of scales around midbody (35-36 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 41 in A. steyeri), and in having pigmented palpebrals (unpigmented in A. bumanguesa); from A. pariaensis (not assigned to any species group in the original description) in having a much lower number of middorsal scales (54- 57 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 70-72 in A. pariaensis); from A. steyeri [single member of the steyeri group of Oftedal (1974)] in having a lower number of scales around midbody (35-36 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 40-45 in A. steyeri); and from A. escalerae (not assigned to any species group in the original description), the geographically closest relative, in having a robust body (slender in A. escalerae), in having smooth dorsal scales (weakly keeled in A. escalerae), in lacking dorsolateral stripes (present in A. escalerae), in having a lower number of middorsal scales (54-57 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 63 in A. escalerae), and in having a lower number of scales around midbody (35-36 in A. mcdiarmidi vs. 40 in A. escalerae). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case, honouring Roy McDiarmid, North American herpetologist (Smithsonian Institution), for his contribution to the knowledge of the Pantepui herpetofauna. 
  • Kok, P.J., MacCulloch,R.D., Means,D.B., Roelants,K., Van Bocxlaer,I. and Bossuyt,F. 2012. Low genetic diversity in tepui summit vertebrates. Curr. Biol. 22 (15), R589-R590 - get paper here
  • Kok, P.J.R. & Rivas, G.A. 2011. A new species of Anadia (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Venezuelan 'Lost World', northern South America. European Journal of Taxonomy 3: 1-18 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, G. A., NUNES, P. M. S., BARAN, A., JOWERS, M. J., SMITH, E. N., HERNÁNDEZ-MORALES, C., & SCHARGEL, W. E. 2021. A new species of Oreosaurus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Turimiquire Massif, northeastern Venezuela. Zootaxa 5023 (4): 571-584 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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