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Orthriophis taeniurus (COPE, 1861)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesOrthriophis taeniurus callicyanous SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus friesi (WERNER 1927)
Orthriophis taeniurus grabowskyi (FISCHER 1885)
Orthriophis taeniurus helfenbergeri SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus mocquardi SCHULZ 1996
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi (BUTLER 1899)
Orthriophis taeniurus schmackeri (BOETTGER 1895)
Orthriophis taeniurus taeniurus (COPE 1861)
Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis ANDERSON 1879 
Common NamesE: Beauty Snake (friesei: Taiwan Beauty Snake; schmackeri: Sakishima Beauty Snake; callicyanous: Blue Beauty Ratsnake)
G: Schönnatter, Streifen-Kletternatter 
SynonymElaphe taeniurus COPE 1861: 565
Coluber Nuthalli THEOBALD 1868 (S. MAHONY, pers. comm. 2010)
Elaphis yunnanensis ANDERSON 1879: 813
Coluber taeniurus — BOULENGER 1890: 333
Elaphe taeniurus — STEJNEGER 1907: 319
Elaphe taeniura — SMITH 1943
Elaphe taeniura — SCHULZ 1996: 253
Elaphe taeniura — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 345
Orthriophis taeniurus — UTIGER et al. 2002
Elaphe taeniura — ZIEGLER 2002: 233
Elaphe taeniura — GRISMER et al. 2007
Orthriophis taeniurus taeniurus — SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 512

Orthriophis taeniurus callicyanous SCHULZ 2010
Elaphe taeniura ssp. — SCHULZ 1996: 264
Elaphe taeniura mocquardi x Elaphe taeniura yunnanensis — SCHULZ 1996
Elaphe taeniura — ZIEGLER 2002: 233
Orthriophis taeniurus callicyanous SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus callicyanous — LAITA 2013

Orthriophis taeniurus friesi (WERNER 1927)
Coluber friesi STEINDACHNER cited in WERNER 1927: 245 (nomen nudum)
Coluber taeniurus var. friesi WERNER 1927: 245
Elaphe taeniura friesi — TIEDEMANN & GRILLITSCH 1999: 154
Orthriophis taeniurus friesi — GUMPRECHT 2003
Orthriophis taeniurus friesi — SCHULZ 2010

Orthriophis taeniurus grabowskyi (FISCHER 1885)
Elaphis grabowskyi FISCHER 1885
Elaphis taeniurus — BOULENGER 1887 (partim)
Coluber taeniurus — BOULENGER 1890
Elaphe taeniura — BARBOUR 1912 (partim)
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi — SMITH 1930
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi — TAYLOR 1965
Elaphe taenura [sic] grabowskii — MANTHEY & DENZER 1982
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi — MANTHEY 1983
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi — MALKMUS et al. 2002
Orthriophis taeniurus grabowskyi — SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus grabowskyi — ROBERTS & SCHULZ 2012
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi — MALKMUS 2015

Orthriophis taeniurus helfenbergeri SCHULZ 2010
Coluber taeniurus pallidus RENDAHL 1937
Elaphe taeniura — SMITH 1943: 150
Elaphe taeniura taeniura — TAYLOR 1965: 219
Elaphe taeniura taeniura — COX 1991: 178
Elaphe taeniura yunnanensis COX et al. 1998: 50
Elaphe taeniura ssp. — SCHULZ 1996: 264
Elaphe taeniura ridleyi — NUTPHAND 2001: 97
Orthriophis taeniurus — WOGAN et al. 2008: 90
Orthriophis taeniurus helfenbergeri SCHULZ 2010 (nom. nov.)

Orthriophis taeniurus mocquardi (SCHULZ 1996)
Coluber vaillanti MOCQUARD 1905 [non Simotes vaillanti SAUVAGE 1877]
Elaphe taeniura mocquardi SCHULZ 1996 (nom. nov.)
Elaphe taeniura mocquardi — SWITAK 2006: 64
Orthriophis taeniurus mocquardi — SCHULZ 2010

Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi (BUTLER 1899)
Elaphe taeniura ridleyi — COX et al. 1998: 50
Elaphe taeniura ridleyi — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 167
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2004
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2005
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi — SCHULZ 2010
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi — SACHA 2015

Orthriophis taeniurus schmackeri (BOETTGER 1895)
Coluber schmackeri BOETTGER 1895: 268
Coluber schmackeri — BOULENGER 1896: 627
Elaphe schmackeri — STEJNEGER 1907: 322
Elaphe taeniura schmackeri — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 235
Orthriophis taeniurus schmackeri — SCHULZ 2010

Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis ANDERSON 1879
Coluber Vaillanti MOCQUARD 1905: 319 (?)
Elaphe taeniura vaillanti (MOCQUARD) — MELL 1931 [1929]
Elaphe taeniura yunnanensis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Elaphe taeniura yunnanensis — COX et al. 1998: 50
Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis — GUMPRECHT 2003
Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis — WHITAKER & CAPTAIN 2004
Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis — SCHULZ 2010 
DistributionRussia (S Primorskiy Territory; The only one find in the Far East of Russia was registered in 1862),
India (Darjeeling, Assam, Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh (Siddi (=Gandhigram) - Changlang district) [A. Captain, pers. comm.]),
Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Korea, Myanmar, W Malaysia,
China (most of China, but not recorded from NE or W China), Taiwan,
Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra [Schulz 1996]),
Japan (Ryukyu archipelago)

callicyanous: Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand; Type locality: Ky Anh-Ke Go (near Chin Xai), Ha Tinh, Vietnam.

grabowskyi: Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra, Borneo); Malaysia (East Malaysia).

friesei: Taiwan; Type locality: Takow (= Takao), Formosa;

mocquardi: People's Republic of China (including Hainan); Vietnam.

helfenbergeri (previously pallidus): Myanmar, Thailand; Type locality (pallidus): „Sukhli, Tenasserim, „2000 Fuss ü. M.“ [ca. 600 m elevation] (= Sukli, eastern Dawna mountains, village of Myawdi, Kayin [Karen] state, Myanmar).

ridleyi: Malaysia (Malaya), Pulau Tioman; Singapore (?); S Thailand.

schmackeri: Japan (Ryukyu Islands).

taeniura: People's Republic of China.

yunnanensis: India; Laos; Myanmar; People's Republic of China; E Thailand; Vietnam.

Type locality: China: Zhejiang, Ningbo (Cope, 1861)
Type locality: Ningpo and Siam (fide KHALIKOV, pers. comm.); Siam (ANSP 3837), China, Ningpo (ANSP 3840) [fide MALNATE 1971] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3837, 3840 (Malnate 1971), ZSI 4181
Holotype: unknown (fide SANG et al. 2009).
Holotype: ZFMK 86360 []callicyanous]
Holotype: SMF 18411 [schmackeri]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.6.2.1 [yunnanensis]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.7.34, BMNH 1946.1.7.36 [grabowskyi]
Holotype: NMW [friesei] 
CommentSubspecies: We follow David & Vogel (1996) for the subspecific systematic of Elaphe taeniura, which is quite controversial, and the ranges of the subspecies. This author recognises the validity of eight subspecies, one of which has yet to be described. Zhao & Adler (1993) did not recognize the subspecies Elaphe taeniura friesei and Elaphe taeniura vaillanti, but considered them to be synonyms of Elaphe taeniura taeniura. STEJNEGER (1907) listed Elaphe schmackeri as such but speculated that this form might be a subspecies of taeniurus because scale counts are overlapping. BOULENGER (1887) was probably the first one who noted the similarity between Elaphis grabowskyi and Elaphe taeniura. See also synonymy.

Synonymy: The subspecies previously known as Elaphe taeniura vaillanti (Mocquard, 1905) is renamed Elaphe taeniura mocquardi Schulz, 1996 (nomen novum pro Coluber vaillanti Mocquard, 1905 [non Simotes vaillanti Sauvage, 1877, a subjective synonym of Elaphe porphyracea nigrofasciata]). Note that mocquardi and yunnanensis appear to intergrade in Vietnam (ORLOV et al. 2000).

Illustrations in Akeret (2003) and SCHULZ 2010.

Behavior: diurnal.

Diagnosis: for diagnoses of helfenbergeri and callicyanous see SCHULZ 2010 who also provides a key to the subspecies.

Distribution: for a map of callicyanous, helfenbergeri, mocquardi, yunnanensis see SCHULZ 2010: 17. Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). 
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