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Oxyrhopus petolarius (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesOxyrhopus petolarius digitalis (REUSS 1834)
Oxyrhopus petolarius petolarius (LINNAEUS 1758)
Oxyrhopus petolarius sebae (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854) 
Common NamesForest Flame Snake 
SynonymColuber Petola LINNAEUS 1758: 225
Oxyrhopus petalarius [sic] — BOULENGER 1886: 437
Oxyrhopus petalarius [sic] — BOULENGER 1894; 347
Oxyrhopus Petola — LÖNNBERG 1896: 7
Coluber digitalis REUSS 1834: 148
Lycodon petolarius — DE FILIPPI 1840: 184
Oxyrhopus petolarius — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1033
Clelia petola — STUART 1937
Clelia baileyi SMITH 1942: 391 (?)
Oxyrhopus petola petola — BEEBE 1946: 37
Clelia petolaria - TAYLOR 1951
Oxyrhopus petola — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Oxyrhopus baileyi - ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982
Oxyrhopus petolarius — SMITH et al. 1986
Oxyrhopus petola — LINER 1994
Oxyrhopus petola — KORNACKER 1999: 120
Oxyrhopus petolarius — SAVAGE 2002: 575
Oxyrhopus petola — MACCULLOCH et al. 2009
Oxyrhopus petolarius — SAVAGE 2011
Oxyrhopus petolarius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 519
Oxyrhopus petola — HEIMES 2016: 281

Oxyrhopus petolarius petolarius (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber petolarius LINNAEUS 1758: 225
Coluber pethola LINNAEUS 1766: 387
Coluber petalarius LINNAEUS 1766: 387
Oxyrhopus multifasciatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1019
Oxyrhopus spadiceus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1028
Oxyrhopus bi-prae-ocularis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1030
Clelia cornelli MÜLLER 1928: 76
Clelia cornelii MÜLLER 1928 (spelling by FRANZEN & GLAW 2007)
Oxyrhopus petola petola — BEEBE 1946: 37
Oxyrhopus petola petola — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 233

Oxyrhopus petolarius digitalis (REUSS 1834)
Coluber digitalis REUSS 1834: 148
Lycodon (Oxyrrhopus) semifasciatus TSCHUDI 1845: 165
Oxyrhopus immaculatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1029
Oxyrhopus intermedius WERNER 1899: 481
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 233
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis — DUELLMAN 1978: 254
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Oxyrhopus petola semifasciatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: fig. 1229
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis — AVILA-PIRES et al. 2005
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Oxyrhopus digitalis — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 185

Oxyrhopus petolarius sebae (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Oxyrhopus sebae DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1036
Oxyrhopus doliatus semicinctus COPE 1887: 76
Oxyrhopus doliatus var. aequifasciata WERNER 1909: 231
Clelia baileyi SMITH 1942: 391
Oxyrhopus petola sebae — DUNN 1944: 201
Oxyrhopus petola sebae — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 233 
DistributionSE Mexico (incl. Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Guatemala, El Salvador ?, Trinidad, Tobago,
Honduras, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Venezuela (Cojedes), NW Ecuador, Brazil (Goias, Rio de Janeiro, Pará, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Sergipe, Bahia, Acre, Pernambuco etc.), Bolivia, N Peru (Pasco etc.), Argentina (Misiones, but see CEI 1993: 754), Paraguay

digitalis: Brazil (Pará, Amazonas), Pacific lowlands of Colombia and in the Amazon Basin, Venezuela.

petola: Colombian-Venezuellan Llanos and east to the Atlantic, Tobago

sebae: from Mexico to the Caribbean coast and interandean valleys of Colombia.

Type locality: “Africa” (fide LINNAEUS 1758; in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZIU (Uppsala)
Holotype: MHNN [Lycodon (Oxyrrhopus) semifasciatus]
Holotype: USNM 111261 [Clelia baileyi]
Holotype: ZSM 7/1928 (lost), male [Clelia cornelii] 
CommentIllustration: Fig. 18 in VILLA et al. 1988.

Nomenclature: Smith et al. (1986) chose O. petolarius as the correct name. See Bailey (1986) for a contrary view. This matter hinges on whether the subsequent spellings of pethola and petalarius by Linné (1766) and Gmelin (1788) are unjustified emendations or incorrect subsequent spellings (ICZN article 35). If the former, the conclusion of Smith, Williams, and Pérez-Higareda (1986) prevails; if the latter is correct then Bailey's interpretation is valid. Taylor called this species C. petolarius (1951b) and C. petolaria (1954b) [from SAVAGE 2002: 576].

Type species: Coluber Petola LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Oxyrhopus WAGLER 1830 (designated by COPE 1860: 185).

Synonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Subspecies after Bailey 1970. LYNCH (2009) refused to accept subspecies because the “use of subspecies names implies more than we know”.

Appearance: Oxyrhopus petola mimicks Micrurus diastema and M. limbatus. Oxyrhopus petola may be so completely melanistic that inexperienced persons confuse them with adult Clelia clelia (which does not exhibit preocular-frontal contact). 
References
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