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Oxyrhopus vanidicus LYNCH, 2009

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymOxyrhopus vanidicus LYNCH 2009
Oxyrhopus trigeminus — HOGE et al., 1973: 228
Oxyrhopus trigeminus — DIXON & SOINI 1977: 65
Oxyrhopus trigeminus — DIXON & SOINI 1986: 123-24
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — DUELLMAN 1978: 236
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — PEREZ SANTOS & MORENO 1988: 257 (in part)
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — SÁNCHEZ et al. 1995: 314 (in part)
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: fig. 504
Oxyrhopus aff. melanogenys — ZAHER & CARAMASCHI 1992: 809
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — JORGE DA SILVA 1993: 65
Oxyrhopus aff. melanogenys — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1998: 119
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — MARTINS & OLIVEIRA 1998: fig. 101
Oxyrhopus melanogenys — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: figs. 1215, 1229.
Oxyrhopus cf trigeminus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: fig. 1227
Oxyrhopus vanidicus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 520
Oxyrhopus vanidicus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionColombia (Amazonas), Brazil, Venezuela, E Ecuador, N Peru

Type locality: Km 10, Leticia-Tarapacá road, municipality of Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia,  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ICN-MHN = ICN 10683 (original field number, JMR 4106), an adult male collected by Juan Manuel Renjifo on 13 May 2003. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of Oxyrhopus distinguished from all others by having a color pattern of triads and by lacking a pair of short dark bands on the nape. 
CommentSynonymy after LYNCH 2009.

Similar species: Oxyrhopus melanogenys, with which this species is often confused. 
EtymologyLatin, meaning liar; used in allusion to the apparent mimicry of this species with the venomous coralsnake, Micrurus hemprichii. 
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Betancourth-Cundar, Mileidy & Aquiles Gutiérrez Zamora 2010. ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DEL CENTRO EXPERIMENTAL AMAZÓNICO, PUTUMAYO, COLOMBIA ECOTRÓPICOS 23 (2): 61-78 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • Dixon, J. R.; Soini, P. 1977. The reptiles of the upper Amazon basin, Iquitos region, Peru, Part 2: crocodilians, turtles and snakes. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 4: 59-154 [1986?] - get paper here
  • Dixon, J.R. & Soini, P. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Part I. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Part II. Crocodilians, Turtles and Snakes. Milwaukee Public Museum, 154 p
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Fraga, R., Lima, A. P., Prudente, A. L. C., & Magnusson, W. E. 2013. Guia de cobras da região de Manaus – Amazônia Central. Manaus: INPA - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R.; Santos, N.P.; Lopes, L.A. & Souza, I.M. 1973. Serpentes coletadas pelo projeto Rondon VII em Iauaretê, Brasil. Memórias do Instituto Butantan 36: 221-232 [1972] - get paper here
  • Lynch, J.D. 2009. Snakes of the genus Oxyrhopus (Colubridae: Squamata) in Colombia: taxonomy and geographic variation. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 49(25):319-337 - get paper here
  • Martins, M. & Oliveira, M.E. 1998. Natural history of snakes in forests of the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetological Natural History 6: 78-150 - get paper here
  • Metcalf, Matthew; Alexander Marsh, Emerson Torres, Devon Graham, Charles Gunnels 2020. Herpetofauna of the Santa Cruz Forest Preserve in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Herpetology Notes 13: 753-767 - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rincón-Aranguri, M., Toro-Cardona, F. A., Galeano, S. P., Roa-Fuentes, L.. & Urbina-Cardona, N. 2023. Functional diversity of snakes is explained by the landscape composition at multiple areas of influence. Ecology and Evolution, 13, e10352 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-C, H., O. V. Castaño-M, and G. Cárdenas-A. 1995. Diversidad de los Reptiles en Colombia. In: Rangel-C, J. O., editor. Colombia Diversidad Biótica I Bogotá. Colombia Editorial Guadalupe. pp.<br />227–325.
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher & CARAMASCHI 1993. Sur le statut taxinomique d’Oxyrhopus trigeminus et O. guibei (Serpentes, Xenodontinae). Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. 4: (Sér. 14): 805-827 [1992]
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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