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Paleosuchus palpebrosus (CUVIER, 1807)

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Higher TaxaAlligatoridae, Crocodylia, crocodiles (alligators) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Dwarf caiman, Cuvier's smooth-fronted caiman
Local names: Jacaré pagua, Cachirre, Cocodrilo, Musky caiman.
G: Brauen-Glattstirnkaimans 
SynonymCrocodilus palpebrosus CUVIER 1807: 35
Jacaretinga moschifer SPIX 1825 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 69)
Champsa gibbiceps NATTERER 1840: 324
Champsa palpebrosa — WAGLER 1830: 140
Alligator palpebrosus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 67
Aligator palpebrosus — BRÜHL 1874
Paleosuchus palpebrosus — KING & BURKE 1989
Paleosuchus palpebrosus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Paleosuchus palpebrosus — CACCIALI et al. 2016 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil (Goias, Acre, Piauí, Pernambuco, Paraíba etc.), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana ?, NE Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Trinidad

Type locality: "Cayenne," French Guiana.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 7530, according to Vaillant 1898, and MNHN 7531 according to Vaillant 1898. 
Diagnosis 
CommentDistribution: Slightly larger distribution than that of the sympatric Paleosuchus trigonatus, extending into Paraguay and further into Brazil. Not listed for Guyana fide Cole et al. 2013. 
Etymology 
References
  • Ali, Saiyaad H.; Nalini Rampersad-Ali and John C. Murphy 2016. The discovery of Cuvier’s Dwarf Caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Reptilia: Alligatoridae) in Trinidad J. Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalist’s Club - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Kleiton R. Alves-Silva, Laís Barbosa, Fabrício S. Correa, Jorge F. A. Cosenza, Ana Paula V. Costa-Rodrigues, Aurea A. Cronemberger, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Geraldo R. Lima-Filho, Adriano O. Maciel, Alexandre F. R. Missassi, Lyw 2018. Changes in Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Over Time in Parque Estadual do Utinga, a Protected Area Surrounded by Urbanization Herpetology Notes 11: 499-512 - get paper here
  • Barban Zucoloto, Rodrigo; Priscilla Marqui Schmidt Villela; Luciano Martins Verdade and Luiz Lehmann Coutinho 2006. Cross-species microsatellite amplification in South American Caimans (Caiman spp and Paleosuchus palpebrosus). Genetics and Molecular Biology 29 (1): 75-78
  • Bauer A.M. and Russell A.P 2017. Carl Bernhard Brühl and the Herpetological Contributions of his Zootomie aller Thierklassen Bibliotheca Herpetologica 13 (1-2): 4-34
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Brühl, C.B. 1874. Zootomie aller Thierklassen für Lernende, nach Autopsien, skizzirt. Bd. 1-4. Alfred Hölder, Wien: Bd. 1, 86 pp.; Bd. 2, 90 pp.; Bd. 3, 114 pp.; Bd. 4, 152 pp. (published in parts from 1874 to 1888, see Bauer & Russell 2017 for details) - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Campos, Zilca and Tãnia M. Sanaiotti. 2006. Paleosuchus palpebrosus Nesting. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 81 - get paper here
  • Campos, Zilca, Tânia Sanaiotti, Vanílio Marques and William E. Magnusson. 2015. Geographic Variation in Clutch Size and Reproductive Season of the Dwarf Caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 49 (1): 95-98
  • Campos, Zilca; Sanaiotti, Tânia; Magnusson, William E. 2010. Maximum size of dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807), in the Amazon and habitats surrounding the Pantanal, Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 439-442 - get paper here
  • Campos, Zilca; William E. Magnusson, and Vanílio Marques 2013. Growth Rates of Paleosuchus palpebrosus at the Southern Limit of its Range. Herpetologica Dec 2013, Vol. 69, No. 4: 405-410. - get paper here
  • Carvalho, Elildo A.R.; Jr. and Victor B.G. Véras Batista 2013. Distribution and Abundance of Caiman latirostris and Paleosuchus palpebrosus at Grande Serao Veredas <br />National Park, Central Brazil. Herp. Cons. Biol. 8 (3) - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
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  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
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  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386,
  • Magnusson W E 1992. Paleosuchus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 553: 1-4 - get paper here
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  • Medem, F. 1953. Contribuciones a la taxonomía y distribución del yacaré negro, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier) en Colombia. Rev. Colomb. Antropologia 1 (1): 409-419
  • Medem, F. 1967. El genero Paleosuchus en Amazonia. Atas do Simp.sobre Biota Amaz. 3: 141-162
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  • Melo, Íris Virgínea; Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura, Marco Antonio de Freitas, Edson Victor Euclides de Andrade, Cláudio Casal, Arthur Diesel Abegg, Marcelo Nogueira de Carvalho Kakubum 2018. New additions to herpetofauna of the Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, an urban Atlantic Rainforest Fragment, Recife municipality, Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 245-254 - get paper here
  • Merchant, Mark, Shirley, Matthew H. and Watson, Charles M. 2016. Paleosuchus spp. (Dwarf Caiman) and Osteolaemus spp (Dwarf Crocodile) Defense mechanisms Herpetological Review 47 (4): 660-663
  • Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira; Brygida Alves, Carmem Pedro, Daniel Laranjeiras, Francis Caldas, Isabella Pedrosa, Jefter Rodrigues, Leandro Drummond, Lucas Cavalcanti, Milena Wachlevski, Paulo Nogueira-Costa, Rafaela França, Frederico França 2018. Herpetofauna in two habitat types (tabuleiros and Stational Semidecidual Forest) in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, northeastern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 455-474 - get paper here
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