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Paleosuchus trigonatus (SCHNEIDER, 1801)

IUCN Red List - Paleosuchus trigonatus - , LR

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Higher TaxaAlligatoridae, Crocodylia, crocodiles (alligators) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Schneider's smooth-fronted caiman, Cachirre, Jacaré coroa.
G: Keilkopf-Glattstirnkaimans 
SynonymCrocodilus trigonatus SCHNEIDER 1801: 161
Paleosuchus trigonatus — DUELLMAN 1978: 195
Paleosuchus trigonatus — KING & BURKE 1989
Paleosuchus trigonatus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Paleosuchus trigonatus — LEHR 2002: 69 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil (incl. Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela. Much overlap with Paleosuchus palpebrosus, but not as extensive southwards (probably due to a decreased cold tolerance in comparison with P. palpebrosus).

Type locality: unknown (fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 243.
Lectotype: ZMB 243 
CommentMüller (1924: 319) showed that Crocodylus niloticus was based on Seba's illustration of Paleosuchus trigonatus; see also Schmidt (1928); Stejneger (1933); and Mook and Mook (1940) (after King & Burke 1989).

Type species: Crocodilus trigonatus SCHNEIDER 1801: 161 is the type species of the genus Paleosuchus GRAY 1862: 330. 
References
  • Ávila, R.W.; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro. 2011. Herpetofauna of São João da Barra Hydroelectric Plant, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 750-755 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. 2006. An annotated catalogue of the types of crocodilians (Reptilia: Crocodylia) in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (ZMB). Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin - Zoologische Reihe 82 (2): 243-247
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Gray, J. E. 1862. A synopsis of the species of Alligators. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3)10 : 327-331 - get paper here
  • Hauschild, A. 2005. Das Südamerika-Regenwaldhaus im Krefelder Zoo. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (52): 79-82 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Magnusson W E 1992. Paleosuchus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 553: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Magnusson W E 1992. Paleosuchus trigonatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 555: 1-3 - get paper here
  • Magnusson, W.E.;Lima, A.P. 1991. The ecology of a cryptic predator, Paleosuchus trigonatus, in a tropical rainforest. Journal of Herpetology 25 (1): 41-48 - get paper here
  • Magnusson, W.E.;Yamokoshi, M. 1986. Anomalous records of the occurrence of Paleosuchus trigonatus. Herpetological Review 17 (4): 84-85 - get paper here
  • Medem, F. 1952. Paleosuchus trigonatus (Schneider) en Colombia. Lozania (Acta Zool. Colombiana) 5: 1-12
  • Medem, F. 1967. El genero Paleosuchus en Amazonia. Atas do Simp.sobre Biota Amaz. 3: 141-162
  • Meurer, A. 2015. Private Pflege und Nachzucht bedrohter Krokodile. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (1): 66-74 - get paper here
  • Mook, C.C., and G.E. Mook. 1940. Some problems in crocodilian nomenclature. American Museum Novitates 1098: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Müller, L. 1924. Zur Nomenclatur der südamerikanischen Kaiman-Arten. Zool. Anz. 58: 315-320 [1923?]
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • Pritchard, P.C.H. 1995. Paleosuchus trigonatus (Schneider's smooth-fronted caiman). Herpetological Review 26 (1): 43 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivas, J.A.; Aktay, S.A. & Owens, R.Y. 2001. Paleosuchus trigonatus (Schneider's smooth-fronted caiman) Nesting. Herpetological Review 32 (4): 251 - get paper here
  • Roos, Jonas; Ramesh K. Aggarwal, Axel Janke 2007. Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 663–673 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Notes on South American caimans. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series. Chicago. 12 (17): 205-231 - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1933. Crocodilian nomenclature. Copeia 1933 (3): 117-120 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 2004. Ein Beitrag zur Naturgeschichte, Haltung und Nachzucht des Keilkopf-Glattstirnkaimans, Paleosuchus trigonatus (SCHNEIDER 1801). Draco 5 (20): 32-38 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. & Olbort, S. 2004. Genitalstrukturen und Geschlechtsunterscheidung bei Krokodilen. Draco 5 (20): 39-47 - get paper here
 
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